Normal blood pressure is very important for the health of the body. Without pressure, blood in the body will not flow, then there is no oxygen or nutrients flowed into the tissues and other organs of the body. People can experience interference with their blood pressure, such as blood pressure can be very high, commonly referred to as hypertension. Then there is also a blood pressure that can be very low or referred to as hypotension.
Which is more dangerous between hypertension and hypotension? Here's the explanation.
Get to know hypertension or high blood pressure
Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. Blood pressure itself is the power of blood flow from the heart which pushes against the walls of blood vessels (arteries). The strength of this blood pressure can change from time to time, influenced by what activities are being carried out by the heart (such as being exercising or in normal /resting) and endurance of blood vessels.
High blood pressure is a condition where blood pressure is higher than 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mmHG). The 140 mmHG number refers to systolic reading, when the heart contracts /pumps blood throughout the body. Meanwhile, the 90 mmHG number refers to diastolic reading, when the heart is relaxed, which is when the heart is filled with blood
Almost everyone can experience high blood pressure. The World Health Organization (WHO) says the number is currently increasing globally. The increase in adults around the world who will suffer from hypertension is predicted to increase by 29 percent by 2025.
Other facts about high blood pressure
Increased cases of hypertension also occur in Indonesia. Data from the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) of the Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Health in 2013 showed that 25.8 percent of Indonesia's population had hypertension. The National Health Indicator Survey (Sirkesnas) report shows that the number of sufferers has increased to 32.4 percent. This means there is an increase of around seven percent from previous years. The exact numbers in the real world might be higher than this because many people don't realize they have high blood pressure.
Hypertension is called a "silent killer" because this disease does not cause long-term symptoms but may result in life-threatening complications of heart disease.
If it is not detected early and treated on time, hypertension can lead to serious complications of coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, blindness, diabetes, and many other dangerous diseases. Stroke (51%) and Coronary Heart Disease (45%) are the highest causes of death in Indonesia.
What are the characteristics of people who have high blood pressure?
People with hypertension usually do not show any characteristics or only experience mild symptoms. However, the condition of severe high blood pressure may cause the following symptoms:
- Severe headache
- Blurred vision
- ringing ears
- Irregular heartbeat
- Chest pain
- Difficulty breathing
- Blood in urine
- Sensation beats on the chest, neck, or ears.
There may still be other symptoms not listed above. Consult your doctor for more complete information.
Know hypotension (low blood pressure)
Hypotension or commonly known low blood pressure, is a condition of blood pressure that is produced when the heart pumps blood to all arteries of blood in the body below the normal pressure limit. When blood flows through the arteries, blood puts pressure on the arterial wall.
That pressure is assessed as a measure of the strength of the blood flow or called blood pressure. If the blood pressure in the arteries is lower than normal, it is usually called low blood pressure or hypotension. This also means that the heart, brain, and other parts of the body do not get enough blood.
Normal blood pressure, size 120/80 mm Hg, but a person's blood pressure every time is not always the same, always changes change it. Some experts say that low blood pressure is in the systolic size of 90 (the first number) and the distolic size is 60 (the second number). Sudden changes in blood pressure are also dangerous because they can cause severe dizziness, because the brain fails to receive adequate blood flow.
There are 4 types of hypotension that you must know
1. Postural hypotension
The type of postural blood pressure is common. It usually occurs when you stand up quickly from a sitting position or when you lie down. This type of hypotension is also called orthostatic hypotension. Believe it or not, gravity can make your blood flow to your feet when you stand up. Your body tries to increase the heart rate and blood vessel constriction, so that the blood supply can return to the brain. Symptoms of blood pressure will usually be dizziness, nausea and fainting.
Postural hypotension can also be caused by other triggers, such as dehydration, long rest, pregnancy, heart problems, extremely hot conditions, enlarged varicose veins, diabetes and neurological disorders. Not only that, this postural type blood pressure can also occur due to the influence of drugs. When you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, the medication used to treat high blood pressure can dramatically reduce low blood pressure.
2. Postprandial hypotension
Postprandial blood pressure is a unique condition, because this blood pressure occurs after eating. Why is that so, shouldn't it be after our meals even energize because we get more nutrients?
Look, after eating the blood flow in the body will move in your digestive tract. Similarly, when you stand up, blood collects on your feet. Your body tries to fight this by increasing your heart rate to remain normal.
But your body's efforts don't always work, so when you fail, you will feel a headache, faintness, or even fall. This type of low blood pressure is common in people with high blood pressure who are on medication, or someone with nervous system disorders such as Parkinson's disease.
One way to overcome this is to reduce the dose of the drug, eat small portions (but several meals), and snack on low-carbohydrate foods.
3. Hypotension due to incorrect brain signals
This blood pressure occurs when there is a 'signal' that is wrong between the brain and the heart. The cause of this type of low blood pressure is standing for a long time, as a result you will feel dizzy, nauseous, until you faint.
Usually this type of low blood pressure attacks young people. The nerve in the left ventricle of the heart signals the brain that the blood is too high. The brain also lowers the heart rate, so that blood pressure decreases. This is what causes blood to collect in the legs and difficulty reaching the brain.
4. Hypotension due to damage to the nervous system
This condition can be referred to as Shy-Drager syndrome, which is a condition of a rare disorder. This is caused by progressive damage to the autonomic nervous system (the nervous system that controls the body's automatic functions). This characteristic of low blood pressure is that you experience the characteristics of severe postural low blood pressure a combination of high blood pressure when you lie down or lie down.
Differences in hypertension and hypotension
Blood pressure keeps changing according to body activities and conditions. The lowest blood pressure in healthy people occurs during sleep or rest. While the highest blood pressure occurs when doing physical activity and when stress and anxiety levels increase.
However, if blood pressure is at a high or low level at a time that is not supposed to be, it could be a disorder. Disorders of blood pressure are hypertension and hypotension. Although both occur in blood pressure, both are clearly different. Here's the difference between hypertension and hypotension.
1. The amount of pressure on the arteries
If someone has hypertension, blood that has low oxygen levels is pumped into the lungs, where oxygen is replenished. However, the walls of the arteries in the heart receive too much pressure continuously. Hypertension is characterized by blood pressure above 120/80 mmHg.
While hypotension means the pressure on the arteries is so low that blood does not deliver enough oxygen and nutrients to the organs of the body. As a result, these organs do not function normally and may be damaged, either temporarily or permanently. Hypotension is characterized by blood pressure below 90/60 mmHg.
2. Hypertension has a symptomatic stage
Hypertension generally has three stages in accordance with the continued increase in blood pressure. At the initial stage or called pre-hypertension it is around 120/80 mmHg up to 140/90 mmHg.
If left untreated, blood pressure will exceed 140/90 mmHg to 160/100 mmHg, this is called stage I hypertension. Then, if the condition gets worse the blood pressure can exceed 160/100 mmHg, this is called the stage of hypertension stage 2.
3. Symptoms and signs that are felt
Common symptoms of hypertension include headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, blurred vision, throbbing in the neck or head, and nausea.
Meanwhile, general symptoms of hypotension include a slowing heart rate, headache, dizziness, and fainting.
4. The cause of the occurrence
Most cases of high blood pressure in adults occur naturally (primary cause). It can also develop along with increasing age, weight, genetic factors, unhealthy lifestyles, and other diseases that are at risk of causing hypertension (secondary causes), such as diabetes.
While the causes of hypotension are moderate or severe bleeding, dehydration, the use of certain drugs, inflammation of organs such as acute pancreatitis which causes blood pressure to drop, as well as conditions or abnormalities in the heart.
Between hypertension and hypotension, which is more dangerous?
Hypertension and hypotension cannot compare the severity, both are equally dangerous. Because, both are equally at risk of causing complications in the long term and certainly give a bad influence on the organs of the body.
Complications in hypertension will cause damage to blood vessels so that heart attacks, heart failure, kidney failure and other possible diseases can occur. While hypotension can cause shock (loss of fluid or blood in very large amounts) which is certainly life threatening.
Of course healthy life is your choice, right? Instead of comparing; which is more dangerous, you should avoid both of these disorders. Reporting from Healthline, the following guidelines for maintaining healthy blood pressure such as:
- Keep your ideal weight. To ascertain whether your weight is ideal, check with this BMI consultant or at bit.ly/indeksmassatubuh.
- Keep a healthy and balanced diet.
- Enough rest and exercise.
- Stop smoking and avoid consuming alcohol.
- Routinely check blood pressure and your health consultation to the doctor.
How do you maintain normal blood pressure?
Changes in a healthy lifestyle are the first important step to lower blood pressure. Current health experts suggest that we all have to:
- Exercise at least 30 minutes a day
- Maintain your ideal body weight
- Reduce consumption of sodium (salt)
- Increase potassium intake
- Limit alcohol consumption to no more than one or two glasses a day
- Eating foods rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products while reducing total fat and saturated fat intake
- Stop smoking
Change the pattern and lifestyle to keep blood pressure normal
On the other hand, the symptoms of hypertension and hypotension do not always have to be treated with medical drugs. In addition to the consumption of drugs, positive lifestyle changes such as a balanced diet and low salt, exercise, not smoking and not drinking alcohol, and weight management can help reduce blood pressure to keep blood pressure normal.
Natural treatments such as breathing through the stomach, relaxing muscles, and others can help relieve stress causing abnormal blood pressure. Moreover, emotional stress affects your blood pressure. So learn to sort out the priorities of life and stay away from stressors as an equally important effort to manage your blood pressure.
Medication for hypertensive patients
Drugs for high blood pressure that are usually combined are diuretic classes, beta blockers, engiotensin enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), angiotensin-II antagonists, and calcium blockers.
Some examples are Lotensin HCT which is a combination of benazepril (ACE inhibitors) and Hydrocholorthiazide (diuretic), or Tenoretic combined from atenolol (beta blockers) with chlortalidone (diuretic).
Diuretics are often included in high blood drug combinations because of the risk of smaller side effects and their benefits that can increase the effect of blood pressure reduction from the main drug.
Diuretic drugs are also added to blood pressure medications to overcome the problem of excess fluid in the body that is commonly experienced by hypertensive people.
Medication for hypotensive patients
1. Vasopressin drug
Vasopressin drugs are drugs to narrow blood vessels to cause an increase in blood pressure. This drug is usually used for cases of critical hypotension.
Vasopressin can be combined with vasolidators (nitroprusside, nitroglycerin) to maintain blood pressure while increasing the work of the heart muscle. Nitroprusside is used to reduce the burden before and after and improve the work of the heart. Nitroglycerin directly relaxes the vein and reduces the previous burden.
Catecholamine is included in the drugs adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. These drugs work to affect the sympathetic and central nervous system. Catecholamines also function to make the heart beat faster and stronger and constrict blood vessels, resulting in an increase in blood pressure.
3. Other low blood drugs
Certain low blood drugs are targeted specifically to treat heart conditions, blood vessel problems, or blood circulation problems that can cause a decrease in blood pressure. These drugs can work in a damper manner, and one agent can be used to treat several types of cardiovascular problems.
Some drugs can be used to treat conditions of low blood pressure that occur when you stand (orthostatic hypotension). For example, fludrocortisone drugs that increase blood volume. In the case of chronic orthostatic hygiene, the doctor will prescribe midodrine (Orvaten) medication
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