What you need to know about thyroid gland

What you need to know about thyroid gland

What you need to know about thyroid gland


What you need to know about thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck that is useful in almost all processes in the body. The thyroid gland in the neck produces hormones that can become unbalanced and can cause disease. This hormone can be very active or also less active. If this homronous disease is not properly treated it can be dangerous and can cause swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck.

Even so, this condition can be treated using home care or also the thyroid gland medication from a doctor. This article will discuss all about the thyroid gland, thyroid disease, the characteristics of the swollen thyroid gland, and the glandular drug tird.

What is the thyroid gland?

What you need to know about thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck just below the Adam's apple and above the breastbone. The endocrine gland is part of the complex glandular tissue of the olive endocrine system.

Through the hormones it produces, the thyroid gland is useful for almost all metabolic processes in the body. In addition, the thyroid gland also regulates energy in the body, body temperature, and body tissue growth.

The hormone produced by the thyroid gland also affects the work of organs such as the heart, digestion, muscles, and nervous system.

What is thyroid disease?

Thyroid disease is a common problem that causes an imbalance of thyroid hormones in your body. This thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland in the neck does not produce enough hormones or becomes less active (hypothyroid), produces too much hormone or is overactive (hyperthyroid), swells or goiter.

Thyroid disease is more common in women than in men. Thyroid disease can also affect everyone at any age

Although the effects of thyroid disease can make you uncomfortable, but most conditions due to disorders of the thyroid gland can be treated properly if diagnosed and treated properly.

Causes of thyroid disease

What you need to know about thyroid gland

Thyroid disease is generally caused by the production of hormones produced by this gland which is not sufficient to work according to its function.

When the thyroid gland in your neck doesn't produce enough hormones, the balance of chemical reactions in your body can be disrupted. There are several causes, including autoimmune diseases, treatment for hyperthyroidism, radiation therapy, thyroid surgery and certain drugs.

The hormones produced by the thyroid gland are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Both of these hormones have a huge impact on your health and affect all aspects of your metabolism.

The hormone produced by the thyroid gland in the neck also regulates the use of fats and carbohydrates in the body, helps control your body temperature, affects your heart rate, and helps regulate protein production.

Thyroid disease can also be caused by an infection, such as a virus or bacteria, which works in the same way as antibodies cause inflammation of the gland. Drugs such as interferon and amiodarone, are known to cause damage to thyroid cells and cause thyroid disease.

In addition, the thyroid gland that produces more or too active hormones (hyperthyroidism) is generally caused by Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma, although there are still many other diseases that can cause it.

What are the symptoms of thyroid disease?

What you need to know about thyroid gland


Symptoms of the disease of the thyroid gland due to hyperthyroidism are divided into two, namely general symptoms and specific symptoms of the body organs where this hormone works.

Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism are not being able to withstand hot air, fatigue, neck enlargement, weight loss, frequent hunger, frequent bowel movements.

Meanwhile, specific symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

  • Digestive system: eating a lot, thirst, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, lymph enlargement.
  • Reproductive system: impaired menstrual cycle, decreased libido, infertility, gynecomastia in men.
  • Skin: excessive sweating, wet skin, hair loss.
  • Psychic and nervous: labile, irritable, difficulty sleeping, trembling hands.
  • Heart: heart palpitations, heart rhythm disorders, hypertension, heart failure.
  • Muscle and bone system: fatigue, bone pain, osteoporosis.

In hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease, other symptoms are usually found, such as swelling in the shin of the foot, protruding eyeballs, decreased vision, double vision and injury in the cornea of ​​the eye.


Symptoms of a thyroid gland in the neck due to too little hormone produced (hypothyroid) can vary depending on the severity. However, in general hypothyroid symptoms tend to develop slowly, often for several years.

Initially you may not be aware of hypothyroid symptoms, such as fatigue and weight gain. However, the longer this condition will keep your metabolic process slowing down. If this happens, you will feel the symptoms more clearly.

Hypothyroid symptoms may include fatigue, more sensitivity to cold air, constipation, dry skin, swollen face, hoarseness, weakened muscles, elevated cholesterol levels, muscle aches, stiffness, swollen or stiff joints, irregular menstrual periods and feeling more weight, thinning hair, slowing heart rate, depression, data on memory disorders.

If hypothyroidism is not treated, the signs and symptoms will get worse. Stimulation of the thyroid gland to release more hormones can cause the thyroid gland to swell (goiter).

Besides that, you will also be forgetful, slow in thinking, or feeling stressed.

Continuous hypothyroidism, otherwise known as myxedema, is rare, but when this condition occurs it can be life-threatening. Symptoms include low blood pressure, decreased breathing, decreased body temperature, slow response and even coma. In extreme cases, myxedema can be fatal.

Swelling of the thyroid gland

Swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck, also known as goiter, usually causes no pain. Other symptoms of goiter depend on thyroid disease which is the cause. Whether it's hypothyroid or hyperthyroid.

Characteristics of a thyroid gland that is swollen due to hypothyroid conditions, including:

  • Lemas
  • Weight increases with decreased appetite
  • Does not hold cold
  • Dry skin and hair loss
  • Often feel sleepy
  • Constipation (difficulty defecating)
  • Emotions are unstable and often forget.
  • Function of vision decreases
  • Hearing function decreases

Meanwhile, in the characteristics of the thyroid gland that is swollen due to the condition of hyperthyroidism, the characteristics are opposite, among others:

  • Weight decreases
  • Does not hold heat
  • Feelings of anxiety
  • Often feels excited
  • Tremor (unnoticed vibration of the limbs, usually most clearly seen on the hand)
  • Hyperactivity

In goitre, to find out whether hypothyroid conditions or hyperthyroidism are found, a further examination is needed to check the hormone levels produced by the thyroid gland in the neck. Mumps requires medical treatment, from taking thyroid gland medication to surgery. Mumps cannot disappear by itself.

Distinguishes the swelling of the thyroid gland and lymph nodes

What you need to know about thyroid gland

Lumps in the neck are usually caused by swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck and lymph nodes. However, how do you distinguish between the two swells?

Swelling of the thyroid gland

Swelling of the thyroid gland is a lump that is usually dense or filled with fluid. Generally the thyroid gland lump in the neck is caused by several factors, namely:

  • Iodine deficiency
  • Overgrowth of thyroid tissue
  • Thyroid cysts
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Chronic inflammation of the thyroid (thyroiditis)

Lumps caused by enlargement of the thyroid gland are usually located in the middle of the neck, like Adam's apple in men. Generally the shape is small and does not feel when touched because of its location inside the thyroid tissue or is located very deep in the gland.

The characteristic feature of the thyroid gland lump is that it moves along with the process of swallowing. This is because the gland attaches to the cartilage which functions to swallow. Movement of bumps is generally from bottom to top.

Lymph node swelling

Lymph nodes are part of the body's immune system that helps the body fight competitive objects that can disrupt the body's health, such as viruses or bacteria. In addition, lymph nodes also provide white blood cells to fight the virus or bacteria.

Lumps in the neck due to lymph nodes are swollen lymph nodes that usually occur due to infection with certain bacteria or viruses.

Usually swelling occurs near the affected part of the body. For example, swelling that occurs in the neck is usually caused by a throat infection.

In addition, swelling in lymph nodes can also be caused by autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.

Other conditions that can also cause swollen lymph nodes are injuries, or the use of certain drugs such as dilantin (malaria prevention medicine).

In addition to the neck, swollen lymph nodes can also appear in the groin, armpit, under the jaw, and behind the ear.

Lumps caused by swollen lymph nodes are usually located on the right or left side of the neck. Usually sized like peas or red beans, even bigger. Generally this lump is quite visible from the outside and feels if touched.

In addition, other symptoms that may occur are runny nose, sore throat, earache, fever, and fatigue.

Lymph node lumps in the neck arise due to certain conditions such as:

  • Sore throat
  • Measles
  • Ear infections
  • Dental infection
  • TBC
  • Syphilis
  • Toxoplasma
  • Lymphoma (lymph cancer)

Immediately see a doctor if you also experience the following symptoms:

  • Lumps don't disappear even for weeks
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Sweating at night
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness or loss of feeling around swelling
  • Treatment options for thyroid disease

Treatment for treating thyroid gland disease

Here are various treatments for treating thyroid gland disease.


Hypothyroidism is a lifelong condition. For many people, the thyroid gland medication can help reduce or relieve symptoms.

Hypothyroidism can be treated using Levothyroxine (Levothroid, Levoxyl). This is a synthetic thyroid gland drug from the T4 hormone that mimics the work of thyroid hormones that are normally produced by your body.

This drug is designed to restore balanced thyroid hormone levels to your blood. After hormone levels are normal, hypothyroid symptoms tend to disappear or at least be much more manageable.

After you start treatment, it takes several weeks before you begin to feel relieved. You will need an advanced blood test to monitor your progress. You and your doctor will work together to find the best dosage and treatment plan to deal with your symptoms.

In most cases, people with hypothyroidism must continue to undergo this treatment for the rest of their lives. However, you will not continue to use the same dose. To ensure that your thyroid gland medicine is still functioning properly, your doctor must test your TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels every year.

If the blood level shows the drug isn't working properly, the doctor will adjust the dose until your hormonal balance is reached.

Side effects of this treatment are rare. However, if you use too much thyroid hormone, you may experience dizziness, heart palpitations, and difficulty sleeping.

Pregnant women may need to increase their thyroid replacement by 50 percent. It takes around 4 to 6 weeks for the effects of the initial dose or dose changes to be seen in laboratory tests.


Hyperthyroidism can be treated with iodine (radioactive iodine), anti-thyroid drugs or surgery (thyroidectomy). Also, by making dietary changes.

Radioactive iodine

This treatment can destroy parts of the thyroid gland and control the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. The level of radioactive iodine used in this treatment is quite low, so you don't have to worry about damaging your entire body.

The advantages of this treatment are fast and easy to do and low recurrence rates. The disadvantage is that 50 percent hyperthyroid recurrence can occur after therapy.

This treatment is not recommended for pregnant women, or those who plan a pregnancy in the next 6 months. Because it can damage the development of the fetal thyroid gland.

In addition, patients can use anti-thyroid drugs so that hyperthyroidism can be controlled within 6 weeks to 3 months.

Anti-thyroid medication

The medication for the tidroid gland to control hyperthyroidism is thyrostatic. This anti-thyroid drug serves to inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis and suppress the autoimmune process.

Giving this drug initially in the largest dose or according to clinical, then lowered to the lowest dose where thyroid hormone is still within normal limits.

Side effects of this drug are skin rashes, itching, allergies, muscle aches and joint pains.

Examples of anti-thyroid drugs include propylthiouracil (PTU), metimazole, carbimazole.

Thyroid surgery (thyroidectomy)

Thyroid surgery can be done in total or in part. Thyroid surgery is needed if you experience the following:

  • Severe hyperthyroidism in children.
  • Not cured with radioactive iodine, anti-thyroid drugs or other thyroid gland medications, and other treatments.
  • Swelling of the thyroid gland causes severe swollen eyes.
  • Swelling causes breathing problems or difficulty swallowing.
  • Requires fast recovery such as pregnant women, mothers planning a pregnancy in 6 months or people with unstable heart disease.

The other thyroid gland medication given for hyperthyroidism is beta-blockers. This drug serves to reduce symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as palpitations, trembling hands and others. Examples of these drugs are propranolol and metoprolol.

Diet for hyperthyroidism

People who have some characteristics of the thyroid gland that experience swelling due to hyperthyroidism can be overcome by having a healthy diet.

A healthy diet for hyperthyroidism is done by eating foods high in calcium (broccoli, almonds, fish, okra); foods high in vitamin D (sardines, cod liver oil, salmon, tuna and mushrooms); high-magnesium foods (dark chocolate, almonds, cashews, seeds); and foods containing selenium (mushrooms, brown rice, kuaci, sardines).

Hyperthyroidism causes calcium to be difficult to absorb in the body. If there is no calcium, the bones become vulnerable and vulnerable to osteoporosis can cause brittle bones and osteoporosis.

Vitamin D can help the body absorb calcium from food more easily. You can also get vitamin D intake for the body by sunbathing in the morning. Because most vitamin D is made in the skin through absorption of sunlight.

Also Read:

  • Similar Overview, Here's How to Differentiate Hyperthyroid Symptoms and Heart Disease
  • Symptoms and Examination of Congenital Hypothyroid Needs to Be Recorded Every Parent
  • Often Doesn't Have a Good Body? Maybe You Have Hypothyroidism


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