Maybe you are wondering what the relationship between diabetes alias diabetes with hypertension is characterized by blood pressure above 140/90 mmHG. But in fact, these two "diseases" are closely related, and may appear together in one body. The presence of diabetes causes hypertension is difficult to treat, while high blood pressure makes the impact of diabetes become more dangerous. Why does diabetes and hypertension usually occur together? See the explanation below.
Why can diabetes and hypertension occur together?
High blood sugar is the source of a variety of chronic diseases, including hypertension. If you have diabetes and you don't control your disease, you are more likely to experience high blood pressure. Why?
Diabetes that continues to be left untreated for a long time causes damage to blood vessels and increased fat accumulation in the walls of blood vessels. This buildup of fat can increase the risk of blood vessels narrowing due to clogging and eventually hardening. This condition is called atherosclerosis. Strong blood flow from the heart becomes blocked because not all can pass through narrow vessels. As a result, the heart must work harder to pump blood. This is what causes blood pressure to increase for a long time if you have diabetes.
The effect of insulin resistance due to diabetes itself can also cause hypertension. Insulin resistance makes the body not respond to the insulin hormone properly, so it fails to absorb blood sugar (glucose) to be used as energy or fat stores. This condition results in an increase in body fat. Fat accumulation in the body can interfere with the workings of the nervous system, including signals that regulate blood pressure.
In addition, insulin resistance triggers an imbalance of salt and potassium levels which causes an increase in body fluid volume. This can also cause narrowing of the arteries, which increases blood pressure for a long time to the risk of hypertension.
Diabetes and hypertension cause the same
Diabetes and high blood pressure are two "diseases" with more or less the same main risk factors, namely poor diet, lack of physical activity, and smoking and excessive drinking. Moreover, data have shown that people who smoke more than one pack of cigarettes a day are more likely to drink alcohol than those who don't smoke.
All elements of this non-healthy lifestyle together make blood vessels narrow and the heart must work extra hard to pump blood. Unhealthy lifestyles can also disrupt the production of hormones and body enzymes, including insulin production. In fact, insulin also plays an important role to help regulate blood pressure.
So, don't be surprised if your risk of developing hypertension increases if your diabetes isn't handled properly. Vice versa. High blood pressure can also trigger /worsen diabetes.
Diabetes and high blood pressure can get worse by itself
An uncontrolled increase in blood sugar levels in diabetics can be potentially dangerous, including damage to capillary arteries. Damage to capillaries can disrupt the work of the kidneys to regulate blood pressure, which will increase a person's risk of hypertension.
On the other hand, people who have high blood pressure can also be at risk of developing diabetes because increased tension can affect insulin production from the pancreas. Damage to the pancreas and the hormone insulin that doesn't work properly can make the body produce more blood sugar. Increased excessive blood sugar has the risk of causing symptoms of diabetes.
If you have high blood pressure, your chances of experiencing insulin resistance can reach 50 percent. Insulin resistance is a common condition indicated by people with diabetes.
How common is hypertension in diabetics?
Large data from studies on type 1 diabetes show that:
- 5% of diabetic patients have high blood pressure in 10 years
- 33% have high blood pressure in 20 years
- 70% have high blood pressure at age 40
In research on type 2 diabetes, data shows that nearly 75% of patients with kidney problems (general complications) also have high blood pressure. Then, in patients with type 2 diabetes but who have no kidney problems, the risk of developing high blood pressure is around 40%. So, overall if averaged, diabetics in all age ranges of around 35% also have high blood pressure.
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