Indonesia ranks first in the highest number of adult male smokers. Can images scary warn of the dangers of smoking reduce this number?
Beginning to install scary images on cigarette packs
The health warning label on cigarette products is the most cost-effective and effective enough to educate the public, both smokers and non-smokers, about the health risks of tobacco use.
Various theories in social and health psychology, supported by a variety of empirical studies, have demonstrated the advantages of using visual images and images compared to text messages only in the communication process. Since the 1950s, many studies have shown that the attraction of fear is effective in motivating changes in healthy behaviors (such as quitting smoking), especially when juxtaposed with information about how to avoid these frightening consequences (for example, telephone numbers for help consulting stop smoking).
This is why approximately 40 countries in the world have introduced the horrific pictorial warning of the dangers of smoking in every pack of cigarettes, starting with Canada in 2001. In ASEAN countries, four of the 11 countries have implemented health warnings in the form of pictures on cigarette packs since 2004 which were started by Singapore. In Indonesia, the rules for including images of the dangers of smoking warnings have been running since June 2014.
Which is now a question, is this creepy image of the dangers of smoking really effective for suppressing the urge to smoke?
The effectiveness of spooky images of smokers in various countries
Quoted from WHO, evidence of a greater potential impact of pictorial warnings comes from various studies and interviews, including experimental studies and population-based surveys among Canadian, Australian, Dutch, New Zealand, Mexico smokers. Malaysia and Thailand.
Referring to one study conducted in Canada by David Hammond and his research team, reported from the American Journal of Public Health, one-fifth of a total of 616 participants reported a reduction in smoking activity as a result of exposure to warning images in packs cigarettes, and only 1% of those who report are even more active smoking. Although all participants reported a negative response to warnings of the dangers of smoking, including fear (44%) and disgust (58%), smokers who reported greater negative emotional impact were more likely to stop, try to quit, or reduce their smoking portion by three months then. Participants who chose to avoid paying attention to pictorial warnings (30%) reported tending to show less awareness of health risks or show a desire to be involved in smoking cessation behavior.
What is the effectiveness of the warning image of the dangers of smoking in Indonesia?
Reported from National Geographic Indonesia, based on 2013 Basic Health Research data, active smokers ranging from the age of 10 years and over amounted to 58,750,592 people (36% of the total population), aka ten times the total population Singapore.
Ironically, since the warning rules for the dangers of smoking using horrific image visualization were implemented in the Indonesian market, Antara News reported that Indonesia was named the country with the highest number of smokers in Southeast Asia with 51.1 percent of the total population.
In addition, according to The Jakarta Post, Indonesia is currently ranked fourth in the highest number of smokers, following China, Russia and the United States, while also ranking first with the number of active adult male smokers in for the most 15 year olds in the world: reaching 67.4 percent of the total population.
Reported by DW, with the average consumption of cigarettes reaching 1,085 cigarettes per head per year, the number of active smokers in Indonesia is believed to increase to 90 million by 2025.
The smoking hazard warning image is considered ineffective
In general, the warning graphics of the dangers of smoking on cigarette packs indicate that this creepy visualization: (1) is more concerned than warnings that only include text, (2) more effective in educating smokers about the health risks of smoking and also increase their subconscious suggestions regarding their health risks, and (3) related to increased motivation to quit smoking.
Even so, these creepy, realistic images - decaying lungs, malignant oral cancer with complete destruction of teeth and gums, to skull images - are considered a manipulative message for some people. This reaction can be a host weapon for the government in promoting the smoking cessation campaign.
According to a recent study from the University of Illinois in 2016, reported by Journal Now, the warning was seen by many as a threat to freedom, choice or autonomy, so they acted instinctively against the warning.
"The horrible cigarette packs aim to 'frighten' smokers into quitting smoking, but instead form perceptions of threats to individual freedom in the people who see it, when compared to text warnings," said Nicole LaVoie, a university student involved in the study. According to LaVoie, this warning image actually makes people feel angry, not afraid, and feel cheated because the reality is much different than what is in the picture, based on the experience of people around and /or what they experience themselves.
Brian Quick, one of the researchers involved in the study, further said that, some individuals will not only react negatively to potential threats to their freedom, but they will be more likely to increasingly do things that are prohibited - in this case, smoking - to prove their rebellion against the threat.
According to the researchers, if someone has chosen to smoke, they will voluntarily disregard the pictures on their cigarette packs.
Although evidence of the decline in the average number of smokers in various parts of the world is undeniable, LaVoie argues that the decline is more influenced by increases in cigarette taxes and customs, as well as the prohibition of smoking in public places. p>
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