What is cold agglutinin?
The cold agglutinin test is a test performed to detect the cause of the appearance of antibodies called cold agglutinin. These antibodies are usually produced by the immune system when reacting to infection. These antibodies cause blood cells to clot at low temperatures. Healthy people generally have low levels of cold agglutinin in their blood. However, lymphoma or some type of infection, such as mycoplasma, can cause the production of cold agglutinin to increase.
Increasing the level of cold agglutinin from normal levels does not cause serious problems. This level of cold aglutinin will increase if the body temperature is cold, then the blood will freeze under the skin layer, so that the hands and feet become pale and numb. However, these conditions will soon disappear when the body begins to warm up. In some cases, this blood clotting can prevent blood from flowing to the fingers and toes, ears, and nose. This can cause tissue damage, can even cause decay (rare).
Sometimes, high levels of cold agglutinin can damage the flow of red blood cells in the body. This condition is called autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
When do I have to undergo cold aglutinin?
This test is usually done if a person's body reacts to high temperatures and then symptoms of hemolytic anemia appear due to cold agglutinin. Following are the symptoms:
- tired, tired, lethargic, powerless, pale skin, dizziness and headaches due to anemia
- in some cases, the ears and toes, and the nose hurt until it turns blue due to cold temperatures
Prevention & amp; warning
What should I know before undergoing cold agglutinin?
More than half of patients with pneumonia caused by mycoplasma have high levels of cold agglutinin. There is a recent test that can replace this test to detect mycoplasma. Rouleaux formation will be seen on the test Complete Blood Count (CBC). Your doctor will probably do this cold agglutinin test to find out the level of cold agglutinin in your blood.
Blood type tests are usually carried out before blood donation or organ transplantation to ascertain whether the blood group of the donor and recipient is suitable. A person's blood type with a high level of cold agglutinin is usually difficult to detect.
Levels of cold agglutinin in older people usually tend to be higher and last for years. This cold agglutinin test may not be carried out if a person suffers from secondary cold agglutinin disease, such as infection with mononucleosis or infection with mycoplasma pneumonia, so it will be difficult to diagnose cold agglutinin levels in patients with secondary cold agglutinin disease.
What should I do before undergoing cold agglutinin?
You don't need to do any preparation before doing this test.
What is the process of cold agglutinin?
Medical personnel in charge of taking blood You will take the following steps:
- wraps an elastic belt around your upper arm to stop blood flow. This makes the blood vessels under the bond enlarge making it easier to inject the needle into the vessels
- clean the part to be injected with alcohol
- injects a needle into a blood vessel. More than one needle may be needed.
- attach the tube to the syringe to fill it with blood
- releases the ties from your arms when taking blood is enough
- attach gauze or cotton to the part that is injected, after the injection is completed
- puts pressure on that part and then installs the bandage
What should I do after undergoing cold agglutinin?
Elastic ties are wrapped around your upper arm and will feel tight. You may not feel anything when injected, or you may feel like being stung or pinched.
You can release plaster and cotton in the injection area after 20 to 30 minutes. Then you will be informed about the results of the test. Make sure you follow the directions from the doctor.
Explanation of Test Results
What do the test results mean?
Normal test results known as "reference range" only function as a guide. This reference range is usually different in each laboratory. Your test results will usually follow a reference range guide from the laboratory in question.
Normal conditions: less than 1 in 16 (1:16) at 4 C
High levels of cold agglutinin are usually caused by infections, such as pneumonia due to pneumonia, mononucleosis, hepatitis C, or other viral infections.
This high level of cold agglutinin also causes several symptoms due to reactions from cold temperatures, such as skin numbness, burning, pain, and pallor at the tips of the toes and hands, ears, or nose.
Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.