Cataracts are one of the most common degenerative diseases in the eye. At the age of approximately 60 years, usually cataracts begin to form naturally due to the aging process. However, did you know that cataracts can also be caused by other things? Cataracts due to certain causes can even attack children. More specifically, let's look at the five diseases that cause cataracts in the following eyes.
What happens to the cataract eye?
Cataracts are all forms of turbidity in the eye lens that can be caused by various things. The aging process is the most common cause of cataracts, in which 50 percent of people are from the age group of 65 to 74 years. Whereas the age group of more than 75 years has the chance to experience cataracts up to 70 percent.
Turbidity that occurs in the lens of the eye is caused by a pile of proteins in the lens that causes light or light entering through the lens to be dispersed. Therefore, the less light reaches the retina. Piles of protein also make the lens turn brownish.
Therefore the vision of people who have cataracts is blurred and tends to be yellowish or brownish.
Causes of cataracts other than aging
As discussed, the most important cause of cataracts is the aging process. But other than that, several other causes can also cause or trigger cataracts in the eye. Among them are diabetes, genetic disorders, galactosemia, parasitic infections, and trauma. More details, see the discussion of the causes of cataracts below.
People with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes must be very careful to control your blood sugar. High blood sugar levels that last for a long time can cause complications to various organs, one of which is your eye lens. Yes, people with diabetes have a risk of cataracts faster than people in general.
The relationship between diabetes and cataracts lies in the sugar in your blood. Some of the sugar in the blood will enter the lens of the eye as nutrition. When your blood sugar levels are not controlled, the sugar levels in the eyepiece will also increase. The sugar level in a high lens causes water to enter the lens so that the lens becomes swollen.
After that, on the eye lens there is an enzyme that converts sugar into sorbitol. Sorbitol that accumulates can cause changes in the protein in the lens so that the lens becomes cloudy. Cataracts will gradually attack your vision.
Cataracts can also occur due to physical trauma. Trauma alone can occur if you experience injury due to collisions, punctures, or excessive pressure in the area of the head and eyes. Well, collisions, punctures, or pressure on the eye area can cause damage to the lens tissues inside the eye. This damage can increase your risk of developing cataracts.
3. Congenital cataracts
Cataracts in childhood or childhood cataract are cataracts that form at birth. This disease can also be felt in childhood or adolescence. Well, cataracts that appear from birth are called congenital cataracts.
Congenital cataracts are usually caused by a genetic disorder or because of a bacterial infection that is suffered by the mother during her pregnancy. There are many types of infections that have been noted to affect the development of the eyepiece as long as the baby grows in the womb. Some of these include the rubella virus, toxoplasma parasite, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster virus that causes chickenpox, and the herpes simplex virus.
Galactosemia is a hereditary disease that makes the baby's body unable to convert galactose, which is a special compound from carbohydrates, to glucose. As a result, galactose accumulates in the blood.
Galactose will be converted into galactitol, where both will accumulate inside the eyepiece. The buildup of both will draw water into your lens. If not treated immediately, the eyepiece will become blurry.
Among babies with galactosemia, about 75 percent will experience cataract formation in both eyes even in the first few weeks from birth.
Toxocariasis is a Toxocara roundworm infection that is transmitted from animal to human. These roundworms usually come from cats or dogs. Although rare, toxocariasis can also occur because you eat undercooked animal meat, especially lamb or rabbit meat.
This dangerous worm can move and lay eggs on the human body. After that, this worm will spread to various organs of the human body, including the eyes. In the human eye, this worm infection can cause turbidity in the lens.
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