Symptoms of dengue are often misinterpreted by other symptoms of the disease which also have a fever. Because, there are some symptoms that are similar to some other diseases, such as flu or viral or bacterial infections. If you don't get immediate treatment, dengue can be fatal. The following are symptoms of dengue fever which should not be ignored by the patient.
What is dengue fever?
Dengue hemorrhagic fever or DHF is an infectious disease caused by a dengue virus carried by mosquitoes. DHF hemorrhagic fever used to be called "break-bone" disease because it sometimes causes joint and muscle pain where the bone feels cracked.
Mild dengue can cause high fever, a rash, and muscle and joint pain. Whereas severe dengue fever, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause serious bleeding, sudden drop in blood pressure and can even lead to death.
There are four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, namely DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4, and infections from the virus cause various symptoms such as fever, dizziness, pain in the eyeball, muscles, joints, and rashes . People who are infected with the dengue virus often experience long-term fatigue. Dengue virus can develop into a life-threatening thing (severe dengue), resulting in abdominal pain and vomiting, difficulty breathing, and decreased blood platelets that can cause internal bleeding.
Dengue is commonly found in the tropics and sub -tropis, especially in urban and semi-urban areas. Until now there is no specific treatment for dengue fever. However, the dengue fever vaccine has been developed by WHO in April 2016. The vaccine serves to prevent the occurrence of the second phase of dengue fever.
Symptoms of dengue fever
Reporting from Web MD, the symptoms of dengue fever start around four to ten days after the patient gets a bite from the Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albocpictus mosquitoes. In children who have never been infected before, symptoms of dengue fever are more likely to be severe than those of adults.
For this reason, patients and families need to know the different symptoms of dengue fever that appear with symptoms of other diseases so they don't ignore them. Here are some symptoms of dengue fever that should not be ignored by the patient.
1. Sudden high fever
Fever may often occur in many diseases. However, in the symptoms of dengue fever, fever occurs suddenly and many people do not know the difference in normal fever with fever caused by DHF.
The difference between the symptoms of dengue fever and other symptoms of fever is dengue fever can reach 40 Celsius. Fever that occurs due to flu and infection from viruses or bacteria is usually accompanied by symptoms of sneezing or coughing while symptoms of fever in dengue are not the case. Fever in DHF can occur for two to seven days.
2. Muscle pain
After symptoms of dengue fever such as fever occur, the patient will feel pain in the muscles and joints. Symptoms of dengue fever are accompanied by a body shivering and sweating.
3. Severe headaches and pain in the back of the eye
A few hours after experiencing a fever, the next symptom that will appear is a severe headache. Usually pain occurs around the forehead. Severe headaches are also accompanied by pain in the back of the eye. This is a common symptom that often occurs.
4. Nausea and vomiting
In some people, digestive problems can also occur, such as nausea and vomiting. In addition, the abdomen or back feels uncomfortable. These symptoms can occur for two to four days.
Fever accompanied by muscle pain and digestive problems that occur in DHF patients can reduce appetite. Of course this causes the body to become exhausted due to lack of food intake and a weakened immune system.
Get to know the 3 phases of dengue fever
After you experience symptoms of dengue as described above, the dengue fever that you experience will go through the following 3 phases:
1. Fever phase
The most characteristic symptom when getting dengue fever is a high fever. That's why the initial phase of dengue fever is called the fever phase. In this phase, the patient will experience a sudden fever until it reaches 40 degrees Celsius for 2 to 7 days.
The appearance of a high fever in cases of dengue is often accompanied by a reddish face, reddened skin, whole body pain, muscle pain, and headache. However, if the fever lasts for more than 10 days, then the possibility of the fever is not a symptom of dengue fever.
In other cases, symptoms of throat pain and infection, pain around the eyeball, anorexia, nausea and vomiting are found. These symptoms cause a decrease in the number of white blood cells and platelets which directs the doctor to diagnose dengue fever.
Symptoms of dengue fever make it difficult for sufferers to undergo daily activities, such as being unable to go to school, doing office work, and other routine activities.
To prevent other negative things, people with dengue fever are encouraged to drink more water to help lower body temperature and prevent dehydration. Patients must also be monitored because this is vulnerable to entering the critical phase.
2. Critical phase
After passing through the fever phase, patients with dengue fever will experience a critical phase. Well, this phase is usually 'tricky' because the sufferer feels healed and can do activities again. Because the critical phase is marked by a decrease in body temperature to 37 degrees Celsius to normal temperature.
In fact, if this phase is neglected and does not immediately get treatment, the patient's platelets will continue to decline dramatically and can result in bleeding that is often not realized. Therefore, patients must be quickly handled by the medical team because this critical phase lasts no more than 24-38 hours.
During the transition from the fever phase to the critical phase, the patient enters the highest risk of leaking blood vessels. Early indications of vascular leakage can be seen when people with dengue fever experience continuous vomiting, nosebleeds, enlarged liver organs, or intolerable abdominal pain.
3. Healing phase
If the dengue patient passes the critical phase, the person with dengue fever will feel fever again. However, this is not to worry too much. Because, this condition is a healing phase where platelets will slowly rise and return to normal.
Patients will experience a gradual return of body fluids 48-72 hours later.
Starting to enter the healing phase, the health of dengue fever patients will gradually improve which is characterized by increased appetite, decreased symptoms of abdominal pain, and improved diuretic function. The patient's white blood cell count will return to normal followed by recovery of platelet counts.
The danger if dengue fever does not get immediate treatment
These symptoms need to be considered and must immediately receive treatment as soon as possible. Because if a red rash appears on the skin, not only on the face but also can appear on the palms or underfoot or other body parts, then this means that DHF has entered a critical phase.
This can cause serious problems if not treated immediately, such as the occurrence of rare complications characterized by damage to the lymph and blood vessels, bleeding from the nose and gums, enlargement of the liver, and failure of the circulatory system. The symptoms can get worse and cause severe bleeding, shock, and death. This condition is called dengue shock syndrome (DSS). People who have a weak immune system are also more at risk of having more severe conditions when they are infected with dengue.
To treat when exposed to DHF, a virus that attacks blood platelets (platelets) and causes the amount to decrease. Now, to help overcome platelet loss, you can eat guava fruit containing trombinol and quercetin. Guava fruit is also able to accelerate the formation of new platelets and stop the growth of the virus. Not only for DHF, guava fruit juice can also speed up the process of healing ordinary fever.
Try eating the following foods to increase platelet counts during DHF
The main key to reducing the likelihood of complications or death in patients with dengue fever is to provide an intake that can increase the platelet count when entering the critical phase. How to? One of them is by consuming guava.
Guava contains trombinol which is able to stimulate trombopoietin more actively, so that it can produce blood platelets which more often trigger new platelet formation or blood platelets. Because patients with dengue fever need an easily digestible intake, it is recommended that guava be processed into juice. The water content in the juice is also good for preventing dehydration so that it can accelerate the healing of dengue fever.
Aside from guava, there is a Angkak which is believed to be good for consumption when symptoms of dengue fever strike. There have been many various studies conducted to prove the importance of angkak as a natural dengue fever medicine. Please note, Angkak is one type of brown rice from China that is fermented with Monascus purpureus yeast. A study from IPB in 2012 showed that administration of Angkak capsules can increase platelets in white rats made thrombocytopenia (low platelet levels in the blood).
As we know that DHF patients have low platelet levels that make their disease getting worse. With the provision of Angkak which can help increase platelet levels, then DHF patients may recover faster.
Echinacea is a type of herbal plant commonly used to treat fever and flu in North American society. According to the Pakistan Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Research, echinacea can trigger additional protein and interferon production, as a reaction to bacterial and viral attacks. Therefore, echinacea is able to improve the immune system by optimizing the ability of white blood cells to deal with viral infections, including dengue virus.
3. Papaya leaves
4. Eat fruits or vegetables that are rich in vitamin C content
How to prevent symptoms of dengue fever from happening?
1. Clean your bathtub once a week
Water is a breeding ground for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes lay eggs on a wall filled with water, mosquito larvae will then get food from microorganisms that live around it. During this time, mosquito larvae will release their protective skin and multiply until they reach the final stage. When the mosquito larvae are strong enough, the larvae will then turn into pupae. At the pupa stage, no food is needed. Pupa will only experience a change in shape to eventually become an ordinary mosquito ready to fly.
This entire cycle lasts 8-10 days at room temperature. Cleaning your bathtub at least once a week can break the life cycle of Aedes aegypti mosquito.
2. Close your household furniture that holds water
A basin of water, a flower vase, a bucket and other containers that can hold water has the potential to become a place for mosquitoes to nest. Be diligent in cleaning these places at least twice a week to reduce the risk of mosquitoes carrying dengue fever.
3. Use mosquito netting
Mosquito gauze is used to prevent the entry of mosquitoes from outside the home. You can install this mosquito net on your door and window.
4. Don't stack or hang clothes too long
Occasionally consider your coat hanger behind the door. Dirty clothes that accumulate can be a favorite place to catch mosquitoes. Indeed a pile of dirty clothes is not a place for mosquitoes to breed, but is a favorite place for mosquitoes to perch. This is because mosquitoes like the scent of the human body. If you do have to save the clothes that have been used again, place the clothes in a clean and closed place.
5. Use mosquito repellent or mosquito nets
When you are traveling, don't forget to use mosquito repellent lotion, especially on body parts that are not covered by clothing. But not only when traveling, you still have to protect yourself from mosquito bites while sleeping because of dengue mosquitoes active at night until before dawn.
Besides using mosquito repellent lotion, using mosquito nets while sleeping can also help avoid mosquito bites and prevent dengue fever.
- 5 Characteristics of Dengue Fever You Need to Know
- 5 Easy Steps to Prevent Dengue Fever
- Using Guava for Dengue Fever Patients