During the rainy season, it is no longer new if some regions in Indonesia are flooded. A number of diseases are prone to outbreaks.
What's in a flood inundation?
No matter how high the inundation is, floodwater overflows can be contaminated by various disease-causing organisms, including intestinal bacteria such as E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella; Hepatitis A Virus; and typhoid, paratyphoid and tetanus carrier agents. Quoted from the study by Dr. Supakorn Rojananin, MD, deputy head of the Faculty of Medicine and associate professor at Mahidol University, inundated water from floods in East Jakarta in January 2005 containing colonies of E. coli bacteria and enteric viruses Hepatitis A was twice as high as ordinary river water.
These viruses, germs and bacteria are the result of household and agricultural pollutants or hazardous industrial wastes, such as sewage water, food waste, human and animal waste, carcasses, pesticides and insecticides, fertilizers, oils, asbestos, rusty building materials, and so on.
Disease that you should be aware of during the flood season
Here is a list of diseases that you should be aware of during the flood season:
Diarrhea due to infection is widespread in all developing countries. Severe diarrhea is potentially fatal and requires medical assistance as soon as possible due to poor body fluids and nutrients wasted in large quantities with diarrhea fluids - especially in infants and children, malnourished people, and those who have a weak immune system. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that every year nearly two million children worldwide, mostly under the age of 5, die from diarrhea. Southeast Asian countries, including Indonesia, are responsible for 8.5% of these deaths.
Symptoms of diarrhea vary, ranging from brief abdominal pain to defecation that is not too runny to stomach cramps accompanied by the consistency of very runny stools. In the case of severe diarrhea, the sufferer may experience fever and severe stomach cramps. Liquid diarrhea can mix with mucus and blood.
2. Dengue fever
Dengue fever (DHF) is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus and is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Babies and children infected with DB may have a fever with a rash. Older children and adults may experience a low-grade fever, or a sudden high incidence of crippling fever, severe headaches, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, and a rash.
Reported by the Indonesian Ministry of Health, in recent years, dengue cases have been more common in the transition season, especially in the beginning of January. During the period 2013-2014, there were 184,179 DB cases in Indonesia and 1,500 of them died. Starting from 1968 until 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) noted Indonesia as the country with the highest DHF cases in Southeast Asia.
Leptospirosis is an acute infection caused by leptospira bacteria and transmitted by animals. The main source of leptospirosis transmission in Indonesia is mice. This disease is the only epidemic-prone infection that can be transmitted directly through contaminated water. Bacteria enter the body through the skin, through bruises and open or through the eyes that come in contact with dirty water flood inundation.
Symptoms of leptospirosis can range from mild headaches, muscle aches, and fever to severe bleeding in the lungs. In some cases, symptoms may not appear at all. If not treated immediately, leptospirosis can cause kidney damage, meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord), respiratory disease, liver failure, and even death. The latest data from the Ministry of Health, until November 2014, there were 435 cases with 62 deaths from leptospirosis.
4. Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI)
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are infections that occur in the respiratory tract such as the nose, throat, or lungs. The main symptoms can be symptoms of general flu, cough and fever that can be accompanied by shortness of breath or chest pain.
Usually these infections are caused by viruses, bacteria or other organisms that come from unhealthy environments. ARI can be easily transmitted through saliva, blood, sneezing, air, and others.
Stagnant water caused by heavy rain or overflow of rivers can act as a breeding ground for mosquitoes, and therefore increases the potential for exposure of the affected population and volunteers to infections such as dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria. Mosquito-borne diseases are difficult to prevent, especially during disasters.
Malaria symptoms include fever, chills and fatigue. If not treated, malaria can be fatal because it interferes with the blood supply to vital organs. The good news is that the current malaria problem in Indonesia tends to decline quite dramatically. In 2010, there were 465,764 malaria positive cases in Indonesia and this number was reported to decline in 2015 to 209,413 cases. In addition, around 74% of Indonesia's population now lives in malaria-free areas.
6. Typhoid fever (typhoid)
Just to remind, typhoid fever (typhoid) is not the same as typhus that we have understood so far. Typhoid fever (typhoid) is an infection of the small intestine caused by Salmonella bacteria in faeces or animal feces, which infects humans through contaminated water and food. Typhus is another disease caused by the Rickettsia bacteria, not in Indonesia.
Typhoid fever is usually characterized by headache, nausea, prolonged fever, loss of appetite, even diarrhea. Based on Ministry of Health data, the number of typhoid fever patients in Indonesia reaches 81% per hundred thousand people.
In addition to the six diseases mentioned above, other diseases that you should be aware of include hypothermia, tetanus, Hepatitis A, skin diseases, allergies, diseases carried by lice and mites, to worsening chronic diseases that may have been suffered. In addition, flood areas may be at risk of electrocution or fire due to short circuit.
How to prevent transmission of the disease during the flood season
Floods and overflow of sewers can contain bacteria, feces, viruses and other organisms that cause disease. The following information can help protect you and the surrounding community from illness and injury:
- Avoid skin contact with sewer water, especially wounds and wounds. Keep your body clean and closed.
- Don't crash into a pool of floods. Evacuate yourself to a high, dry and safe place to wait for help. Don't let children play and /or swim in floodplains.
- Don't eat or drink anything contaminated with flood water.
- Keep contaminated objects, water and dirty hands away from mucous membranes (mouth, eyes and nose).
- Wash hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom, before eating and immediately after contact with sewage water or contaminated objects or surfaces.
- Use only bottled or disinfected water for drinking, cooking, brushing and bathing until you are sure the water supply is safe. To be safer, always boil the water to boil for five minutes before using it.
- Dispose of food that has been contaminated by flood water. Foods stored in refrigerators or freezers that have been submerged in water must be discarded. If there is no water in this equipment, but the electricity is off long enough for the food to melt, remove all the softened (not frozen) food unless cooked immediately.
- Home Cleaning After Flooding, Starting from Where, Yes?
- What must be done before and after the flood
- Rainy Season, Recognize Symptoms of Leptospirosis Bacteria