Hyperglycemia or a condition in which blood sugar in the body is higher than normal, generally occurs in people who have diabetes mellitus. But, is this condition of high blood sugar only due to diabetes mellitus? Could it be that people who do not have diabetes mellitus also experience hyperglycemia? Check out the review below.
What is hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia comes from the word "hyper" which means high, "gli" means glucose, and "emia" means blood. As has been slightly reviewed above, hyperglycemia is an abnormal condition where high blood sugar is above its normal level.
The body needs sugar to maintain its function. The body's cells will also get energy from the sugar that enters this body. However, there are certain conditions that actually have too much blood sugar in the body in the blood or called hypergicemia.
Normal fasting blood sugar levels range
- Polyuria (frequent urination)
- Polydipsia (always feeling thirsty)
- Polyphagia (excessive hunger)
- Severe fatigue
- Blurred views
If symptoms are detected immediately, high blood sugar levels can be prevented before they get worse.
If you have hyperglycemia you will definitely have diabetes mellitus?
Hyperglycemia is not always associated with diabetes mellitus. There are a number of other medical conditions that can also cause high sugar levels, but indeed, the most common cause of high above normal sugar levels that are found is associated with diabetes mellitus.
Other conditions that can also cause hyperglycemia are:
- Pancreatitis, which is the condition of inflammation of the pancreas
- Pancreatic cancer
- Hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland is overactive.
- Cushing's syndrome, an increase in blood cortisol
- Tumors that produce certain hormones. For example: glucagonoma, pheochromocytoma. Glucagonoma is a tumor that occurs in the pancreas. The presence of this tumor will make glucagonagon hormone production too much. The glucagon hormone in the body functions to convert muscle sugar (glycogen) into blood sugar. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that forms in the cells of the adrenal gland. 50% of people with this condition experience hyperglycemia. Because, there is an imbalance in the production of the hormone epinephrine and norepinephrine. Pheochromocytoma mostly produces more norepinephrine in the body.
- Severe stress conditions, such as during a heart attack, stroke, trauma, or some other serious illness that temporarily causes the body's blood sugar to become hyperglycemic.
- Effects of certain medications, such as using prednisone, estrogen, beta-blockers, glucagon, oral contraceptives, phenothiazines can increase blood sugar increase.
- Eat lots of carbohydrates from the usual amount
- In very passive conditions it doesn't move much
- Having an infection
- Don't get the appropriate number of doses of blood sugar-lowering drugs.
What complications can occur when experiencing hyperglycemia?
If not handled properly, the condition of high blood sugar levels for a long time will cause other problems in the body. Reporting from the website of the Indonesian Ministry of Health, hyperglycemia can worsen health problems such as gastroparesis, erectile dysfunction and vaginal fungal infections.
Other complications that can occur in the long term are:
- Nerve damage or neuropathy
- Kidney damage or nephropathy
- Kidney failure
- Cardiovascular disease
- Eye disease or retinopathy
- Problems in the legs due to nerve damage and blood flow to the non-smooth part of the foot
How do you deal with hyperglycemia?
Mild hyperglycemia usually does not require special medical treatment. People with mild cases of hyperglycemia can often reduce their own blood sugar levels through a healthy lifestyle.
Make sure you are active. Physical activity is the best and most effective way to maintain blood sugar levels. High blood sugar levels can be reduced by physical activity carried out daily.
Also, adjust your carbohydrate intake and prevent consumption of food which causes a high increase in blood sugar. Consult with a nutritionist regarding a meal guide specifically for your needs. Don't forget to control your blood sugar levels regularly to monitor it.
To ensure that you have made the right healthy lifestyle changes, also consult with the doctor who handles your case.
In more severe cases, the treatment depends on what causes hyperglycemia itself. If indeed because of diabetes mellitus, it will be treated with insulin injections and other treatments for diabetes mellitus.
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