Have you ever felt confused about the role that must be performed as a parent? I want, the child grows up to be a good person and accepted by all levels of society, but sometimes confused about how to respond to the challenges of the outside world. Take it easy, there are eight psychosocial stages (the relationship between social conditions and psychology) from Erik Erikson who is ready to be an introduction to parents to act.
Previously, Erik Erikson was a psychoanalytic from Germany. Unlike the famous psychoanalytic figure, Sigmund Freud, according to Erikson, human development takes place for life, so it requires guidance and support from parents to shape children to be good individuals.
Development of child psychology from year to year
Trust vs. mistrust
This stage is the earliest stage of every human being, starting in the first year of the baby. At this stage, the child will depend a lot on the mother, father, grandmother, or baby-sitter, so that sufficient love is needed so that the child learns that his world will be a pleasant place to live. Parents must pay enough attention to children, and continue to be kind and loving.
If the child does not get enough love, even to experience violence and neglect, the child will form a mistrust in the world. Children who have mistrust feel that the world is a cruel place to grow and develop.
Independence vs. shame and doubt (autonomy vs. shame and doubt)
This stage begins to develop during toddlers (ages 1-3 years). In children who feel trust (trust) towards their caregivers (can parents, grandmothers, or baby-sitter), children will feel confident about what they do. Freedom is needed for children to explore themselves and their environment to develop independence. However, supervision by parents is also very necessary, such as telling you that the pan on the stove is hot, or not running when crossing on the road. Excessive care to use violence against children will make the child become doubtful about his own ability to survive.
Initiative vs. guilt (initiative vs. guilt)
This stage starts to develop when children start entering playgroup or kindergarten (3-5 years of age). Because children have started to talk about the wider world in their playground (can playgroup, kindergarten, or socialize with neighbors), there will be many new challenges for children. Allow children to play with many things, and encourage children to try new things. Playing is not only important for the social and emotional lives of children, but also helps children to develop their brains and mindset.
At this stage, parents should be good role model for children. Criticism also should be minimized because the kids will probably make mistakes, such as accidentally damaging goods and spilled food. Allow children to play games that do not require a long time just to sit around.
Children who are forbidden to explore themselves and are too punished will easily feel guilty and anxious.
Industry vs. inferiority
In this fourth stage, around the age of 6 years to adolescence, children begin to focus on science and knowledge. For children who feel themselves unable, they will develop inferiority; aka feel inadequate, unproductive, and not as good as other children.
Need help from teachers in schools to direct children to activities that arouse their sense of knowledge. Give interesting lessons; for example playing with a memory card or looking for paper containing questions. Even so, make sure that every child in the class can feel the same success between one child and another to avoid inferiority.
Identity vs. identity confusion
This is the stage that makes not only children, but also parents, feeling dizzy: the puberty stage. This stage usually starts from the age of 10-20 years. At this stage, teens tend to look for their identity and "trial and error". Adolescents who succeed in getting a productive, healthy, and considered good self-identity will be formed into teenagers with healthy identities, and vice versa. In adolescents who tend to be "unsuccessful" in their trial and error period, they will be formed into a person who is "confused" without direction of life.
Parents have an important role to continue to direct their children's desire not to fall into wrong relationships. Listen to what the child wants, if the child is interested in music, enter the child into a music lesson or take your time to teach children musical instruments.
Phases of psychological development when a person is 20 years and over
The rest of the Erikson version's developmental stages are intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation , and integrity vs. despair occur at age 20 to more than 60 years. In the intimacy vs. isolation stage, children who have become early adults will develop relationships with other people. In early adults who are successful, the sense of need and closeness with friends around will develop. However, if these early adults tend to fail, there will be a feeling of being excluded from the surrounding environment.
In the stage of generativity vs. stagnation , starting at the age of 40-50, they will try to do anything that can contribute to the younger generation. That could be by trying to be a role model or even having /caring for a child. In adults who feel unable to do so, they will be trapped in the stage of stagnation (not developing and feeling unproductive).
Finally there is the integrity vs despair stage. This stage arises when adults become elderly people, around the age of 60 years and above. Times have changed a lot, as well as the capacity of the body and mind. Usually, at this stage, the elderly will tell their youth much to their children and grandchildren. For those who feel that their youth is beautiful and productive, their sense of pride will expand, and those who feel their youth is "wrong in slang" will feel empty and futile.
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