Diarrhea is a common digestive disorder that attacks Indonesian people. Because, snacks at the edge of the road are still a hobby that can not be separated from the daily lives of most people. Well, did you know that it turns out that this often considered trivial disease can and even often causes sufferers to lose their lives because they are late in getting medical treatment?
Severe diarrhea claimed many Indonesian lives
Diarrhea is a digestive disorder due to bacterial viral infection. The most common bacterial causes of diarrhea are rotavirus, shigella, cryptosporidium, norovirus, E. coli, and Giardia intestinalis. Diarrhea is characterized by abdominal pain or cramps, loss of appetite, continuous thirst, soft or runny bowel movements, and the desire to go back and forth to the toilet.
The Department of Health's Diarrhea Sub-Directorate reported that diarrhea was an outbreak of Extraordinary Events (KLB) in 2008 in a total of 69 sub-districts throughout Indonesia with a total of 8133 people. Outbreaks of diarrhea then returned again in 2010, with a total of 4204 people affected by diarrhea in 33 sub-districts.
Along with the proliferation of the disease, deaths from diarrhea in Indonesia also occur quite frequently. Usually the death rate due to an illness is described by the Case Fatality Rate or CFR, which explains how many people died from all sufferers.
Judging from the Indonesian Ministry of Health's Data and Health Information Bulletin Window in 2011, the CFR of diarrhea in Indonesia in 2008 was 2.94 percent, with details of 239 deaths from a total of 8133 people. That means there are 3 who died from 100 people who got diarrhea in Indonesia. This number is still quite high.
CFR diarrhea figures in Indonesia had improved in 2010 with a score of 1.74% which recorded a total death of 73 people. However, this mortality rate increased again in 2015 to 2.47%, although the total number of sufferers was fewer, namely 1213 sufferers.
Experts believe that these numbers represent only a small part of the picture of diarrhea severity in Indonesia. There are still many cases of severe diarrhea out there that are not recorded by census reports.
Why can severe diarrhea cause death?
Diarrhea is very common. The average adult experiences it 4 times a year. Everyone, regardless of age and sex, can experience diarrhea.
Depending on how long diarrhea lasts, there are 3 types of diarrhea:
- Acute diarrhea lasting several days to a week.
- Diarrhea that lasts for 3 weeks.
- Chronic diarrhea lasting more than 4 weeks.
If diarrhea lasts too long without being treated, diarrhea can be a sign of serious disorders, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Irritable Bowel Disease), Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) or irritable bowel syndrome, and even endanger life. Because severe diarrhea can cause serious dehydration.
Dehydration is a condition where your body lacks fluids. When the water level in your body decreases, the balance of minerals in your body is also disrupted, causing the function of your body's organs and tissues to not work optimally.
If severe dehydration is not immediately treated, you run the risk of kidney problems and kidney stone disease. Dehydration can also cause a variety of other more serious health problems such as muscle damage, cerebral edema (brain swelling), seizures, to low blood pressure shock that can cause loss of consciousness (fainting) or even death.
Beware of symptoms of severe diarrhea before it's too late
Diarrhea is more common in infants and toddlers. As an illustration, of the 3 cases of diarrhea in Indonesia, one third of them came from infants and toddlers. Deaths due to diarrhea most often occur in infants and children. In fact, in Indonesia this disease is the number 2 killer of babies after pneumonia. Therefore, do not assume trivial diarrhea experienced by your child.
Diarrhea can cause serious dehydration and lead to life-threatening conditions in a short time. You need to contact a doctor if you see these symptoms in your child:
- A little urine, the color is dark
- Dry mouth
- Fast heartbeat
- Dry skin
But immediately seek emergency medical care if the following severe diarrhea symptoms occur in your child:
- Symptoms of dehydration, such as cold hands and feet, pale skin, rarely urinating, irritability, or drowsiness
- High fever
- Stool contains blood and pus
- Stool is black
- Low blood pressure
- Cry with little or no tears.
- Seizures in the feet and hands, even leading to greater muscle contraction if dehydration gets worse
- Severe anxiety that looks like a child wants to go to sleep
- Skin that loses its elasticity, if it is pinched for a long time to return to normal
Aside from infants and toddlers, be aware of symptoms of severe diarrhea in older children and adults. You need to get medical help immediately.
Symptoms of severe diarrhea for adults, including:
- Dark stool that indicates blood in the stool
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sleep deprivation
- Weight loss
As a first aid measure, you can give ORS solution. If there are no ORS, you can use warm tea added with sugar and salt. Salt serves to replace electrolytes lost from the body due to dehydration. But it is still important to get the right treatment so that severe diarrhea does not end.
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