Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or also known as inflammatory bowel disease (colitis) is a condition that causes the digestive system to become inflamed. The digestive system consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. They play a role in breaking down food, getting nutrients from food, and removing waste products that are not needed.
What kind of inflammatory bowel disease?
There are three most common types of intestinal inflammation. The most common types of inflammatory bowel disease are ulcerative colitis, pancolitis and Crohn's disease.
1. Ulcerative colitis
Ulcerative colitis can be grouped according to location of inflammation and severity of symptoms:
- Ulcerative proctitis. This is the mildest type of ulcerative colitis. Inflammation often occurs near the anus.
- Proctosigmoiditis. Inflammation occurs in the rectum and lower end of the large intestine.
- Left-sided colitis. Inflammation extends from the rectum through the sigmoid and descending colon.
- a is different, but usually attacks the ileum (the end of the small intestine) and the large intestine.
Don't exchange between intestinal inflammation (IBD) and irritable bowel sydrome (IBS) irritable bowel syndrome. IBS is characterized by abnormal contractions in the intestinal wall, while IBD refers to conditions that cause inflammation.
Pancolitis is inflammation of the entire lining of the large intestine. Pancolitis includes chronic inflammation, which can cause the growth of boils in the intestine or even make the intestines hurt. Inflammation of the intestine is often associated with appendicitis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). But when inflammation specifically attacks only the large intestine, this condition is called pancolitis.
Over time, inflammation in the lining of the intestine causes injury. The intestinal wall then loses the ability to process food, leftovers to be thrown away, and absorb water. This causes diarrhea. Small wounds that develop in the intestine then cause you to experience abdominal pain and bloody bowel movements. Reduced appetite, fatigue, and weight loss can eventually memicuanoria.
Other symptoms can also be affected by inflammation of the large intestine, including joint pain (usually in the knee, ankle, and wrist). It does not rule out the symptoms of pancolitis can also affect the eyes. If not treated properly, inflammation of the large intestine can cause fatal complications such as severe bleeding, intestinal perforation (intestinal perforation), hypertrophic intestine (intestinal stretching), to inflammation of the lining of the stomach. Pancolitis also makes you more at risk for colon cancer.
3. Crohn's disease
Crohn's disease is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of the intestine that occurs along the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus. However, this condition most often occurs in the small intestine (ileum) or large intestine (colon). The cause is most likely due to immune system reactions and heredity.
Basically mental and physical health are very related. For example, when you feel nervous you often feel nauseous and even have a stomach ache. Well, so does inflammatory bowel disease caused by an autoimmune disorder or what is called Crohn's disease. Quoted from WebMD, research proves Crohn's disease is closely related to depression.
What are the signs and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease?
Even though the conditions are very different, both ulcerative colitis, pancolitis or Crohn's disease have some of the same symptoms:
- Abdominal pain and cramps
- Nausea and vomiting
- Anal bleeding
- Cramps or spasms in the muscles
- Weight loss
- Fever and fatigue
- Reduced appetite
Over time, inflammation in the lining of the intestine causes injury. The intestinal wall then loses the ability to process food, waste, and absorb water, causing diarrhea. Small wounds develop in the intestine and cause stomach pain and blood in your stool.
This can affect other parts of the body, such as the eyes, skin and joints. People with IBD can continue to suffer from inflammation of the eyes, skin disorders, and arthritis.
There may be times when active symptoms and times when symptoms disappear. In Crohn's disease, 35% of patients who have recovered experience 1 or 2 recurrences within 5 years thereafter. Remission of patients with ulcerative colitis is higher, where 30% of people in remission will experience active disease next year.
What are the causes and risks of intestinal inflammation?
There is no definite cause of inflammatory bowel disease. Several factors can trigger or make symptoms worse. The two most common causes are damage and decreased immune system.
- The body's immune system is not normal: The immune system attacks the intestinal lining, not bacteria and viruses.
- Heredity: People with family members who have this condition often have inflammatory bowel disease.
- Meal menu: A diet that is high in meat and fish protein can cause cell poisoning and intestinal injury.
- Age: IBD is often diagnosed in people under 35 years, but can happen to anyone.
- Gender: IBD can affect both sexes. But more cases of ulcerative colitis occur in men, while Crohn's disease is more common in women.
- Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of Crohn's disease also makes symptoms worse. However, smokers tend to be more likely to get ulcerative colitis than nonsmokers and ex-smokers.
- Isotretinoin (Amnesteem®, Claravis®, Sotret®; formerly Accutane®): There is no clear relationship between IDB and isotretinion, but some studies show this drug to be a risk factor. Isotretinoin is usually used to treat cysts or zits.
- NSAIDS. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin IB®, etc.), naproxen sodium (Aleve®, Anaprox®), diclofenac sodium (Voltaren®, Solaraze®) and others: These drugs can increase the risk of developing IBD or worsens existing IBD disease.
The cause of inflammation of the intestine based on its type
Actually, it can occur in several types depending on the cause of each. What are the types of intestinal inflammation when viewed from the cause?
1. Inflammation of the intestine due to infection
Colitis is an inflammatory disease of the intestine that can be caused by the following three types of infections.
- Bacteria. Mostly, this bacterium contaminates food so that it can enter into your peru. several types of bacteria that cause intestinal inflammation are Campylobacter, Shigella, E. Coli, Yersinia, and Salmonella
- Viruses, which cause inflammation of the intestine are cytomegalovirus, which usually attacks people who have a weak immune system. This type of intestinal inflammation, it is rather rare.
- Parasites, the cause of inflamed intestines, namely giardia, which enters the body through polluted water. Usually, these parasites are in swimming pool water, river water, and lake water, so it is very easy to infect the bodies of people who like to be in that place.
2. Inflammatory bowel disease due to ischemia
Ischemic is a condition in which a body's tissue is damaged by cells, due to the absence of blood flow to that part of the tissue. This is what happens to the intestine if you experience ischemic colitis. In this condition, inflammation and wounds arise due to disruption of blood flow to the intestine, so that the intestines do not get food. Over time, intestinal tissue is damaged and wounds and inflammation appear. People who are at risk for experiencing this are:
- Elderly people. Aging results in blood flow that is not good and smooth anymore. In addition, elderly people who have a history of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol have a higher chance of experiencing ischemic colitis.
- Patients with atrial fibrillation, which does have a disturbance of blood flow in their body
- People who have anemia or low blood pressure
3. Inflammatory bowel due to inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBD)
Inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBD) or intestinal irritation can cause sufferers to experience inflammation in the intestine. This health problem is related to autoimmune disorders. Inflammation occurs due to the body's immune system attacking its own healthy body parts and eventually experiencing intestinal inflammation. This condition occurs in people with IBD, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
4. Microscopic intestinal inflammation
This condition is quite rare and usually affects women who are elderly. Allegedly, this disease is caused by genetics. However, the exact cause is unknown. This health disorder causes sufferers to experience prolonged diarrhea.
5. Intestinal inflammation due to allergies
Be careful, intestinal inflammation can also be caused by food allergies which are usually prone to occur in infants under one year. When your child is allergic to foods such as cow's milk or soy milk, the body releases an allergic and inflammatory response. In this case, the inflammation is the intestine.
What treatment should you take if you have inflammation of the intestine?
Treatment of this disease will actually be adjusted to the type of each. However, some first aid will be carried out in the form of prevention so that the body does not become dehydrated and provides drugs to relieve symptoms.
Your doctor may recommend drugs to treat inflammation and reduce symptoms of inflammatory bowel. Commonly used drugs are aminosalicylate, antibiotics (such as metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, rifaximin), corticosteroid drugs, and drugs to prevent diarrhea and stomach cramps.
- Colitis due to bacterial infection will be treated by giving antibiotics
- Ischemic colitis is treated by giving drugs that make blood flow improve again. Patients with this disorder will usually be given more fluids to avoid dehydration.
- Abdominal pain and diarrhea are overcome by administering painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. While one of the drugs used to stop diarrhea is Loperamid.
There are several treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment often starts with medication, or it may be necessary to do surgery if the drugs do not work.
Surgery can be used to treat ulcerative colitis kondis. However, Crohn's disease may still be able to get back even with surgery.
Crohn's disease surgery does not cure the condition. Most people with Crohn's disease need at least one operation in their treatment. The operation will remove the damaged part of the intestine and connect it to healthy tissue.
Inflammation of the intestines can affect anyone. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this condition. The best way to treat inflammatory bowel disease is to prevent relapse and control symptoms. You can ask for a prevention method and tell about any changes in your eating menu.
Can the condition of colitis be prevented?
For inflammation of the intestine caused by infection and allergies can be prevented, while inflammation of the intestine due to autoimmune or genetic diseases, it is not yet known how to prevent it. Infection that causes inflammation of the intestine can be prevented by maintaining food /beverage hygiene and personal hygiene. Meanwhile, food allergies should avoid foods that can make allergies appear.
Avoid foods that will make intestinal inflammation worse
Here are the things you need to avoid if you have an inflammatory condition in the intestine:
- Trigger foods and allergic foods : People with colitis often have food that triggers inflammation of the intestine, which is food that can make their symptoms worse. They may also have allergic foods, namely foods that cause an immune reaction. You should avoid these foods if you suffer from inflammation of the intestine.
- Fruits and vegetables (especially skinned fruit) : Fruits and vegetables have high fiber content. Your stomach can't digest fiber and eating high-fiber foods can make symptoms worse. You can make fruits and vegetables easier to eat by steaming, baking, or boiling.
- Fiber . Generally, vegetables have a higher fiber content such as broccoli, cauliflower, nuts, seeds, corn, and popcorn. You may be told to limit fiber or go on a low-residue diet if you experience narrowing of the intestines (strictures).
- Nuts, prunes, and popcorn : Nuts, beans and seeds are full of nutrients. However, they are high in fat and protein, which is bad for your digestive problems. Plus the food is hard, hard to digest so it can irritate your stomach.
- High-fat foods : Fatty foods, such as butter, margarine, cream sauce, and fried foods can cause diarrhea. Especially if you have Crohn's disease, you cannot digest normal fat.
- Caffeine and alcohol : Alcohol and caffeinated drinks aggravate diarrhea, while soft drinks often produce gas. Try to drink plenty of fluids every day. Water is the best choice.
- Spicy food : Spicy foods can make signs and symptoms worse.
- Dairy products : For people with lactose intolerance, milk is not an option. However, people with colitis also report milk products cause diarrhea, stomach ache, and gas.
- Large portions of food : You might find it better to eat five or six small portions a day than two or three larger portions.
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