Chronic non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes have been dubbed "grandparents' illnesses". But from year to year, more and more findings are diagnosed with chronic diseases in adolescents and young children. So what are the risk factors for chronic disease in adolescents? See here the explanation.
Cases of chronic disease in adolescents in Indonesia
Attack on diseases that do not know age. So, adolescence also does not really guarantee you are free from the risk of chronic diseases.
Data from 2013 Basic Health Research shows that out of 25.8 percent of the total cases of national hypertension, approximately 5.3% of them are adolescents aged 15-17 years; male 6% and female 4.7%. Meanwhile, 5.9% of Indonesian children aged 15-24 have asthma. Reporting from Republika, diabetes cases in children under 18 have experienced a very high increase in the last five years, which is up to 500% than before.
Connecting the 2013 Riskesdas data, non-communicable chronic diseases caused 71 percent of total deaths. These include heart disease (37 percent), cancer (13 percent), chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD (5 percent), diabetes (6 percent), and other chronic diseases (10 percent).
Risk factors for the emergence of chronic diseases in adolescents
The risk of chronic diseases is generally influenced by genetic derivatives in the family and the surrounding environment. But specifically for adolescents, the main risk factors are bad lifestyles such as smoking, unhealthy eating habits, and lack of movement, explained Dr. Theresia Sandra Diah Ratih, MHA, Head of Sub Directorate of Chronic Disease and Immunology Disorders Director General of P2PTM RI Ministry of Health, when met by Hello Sehat team in Kuningan at the launch of the Young Health program Collaborative program between AstraZeneca and the Indonesian Ministry of Health on Tuesday (8/14). /p>
Based on the 2013 Riskesdas data, child smokers aged 15 years and over are 36.6 percent. In 2016, this number increased to 54 percent from around 65 million teenagers in Indonesia. Smoking and lack of movement can increase the risk of blood clots which can inhibit blood flow to the heart. A bad diet (high in calories, fat, cholesterol, sugar, and salt) can trigger plaque buildup in vessels.
All elements of this unhealthy style together result in blood vessels narrowing and hardening, a condition called atherosclerosis, which makes the heart have to work extra hard to pump blood. Over time the blood pressure will continue to rise until the risk of hypertension.
Unhealthy lifestyles can also disrupt the production of hormones and body enzymes, including insulin production. In fact, insulin plays an important role in regulating blood sugar and blood pressure. Uncontrolled increase in blood sugar levels can trigger diabetes symptoms while causing damage to capillary blood vessels. Damage to capillaries can disrupt the work of the kidneys to regulate blood pressure, which will increase a person's risk of hypertension.
Diabetes and hypertension are "parents" of various other chronic diseases, such as heart disease and stroke. Unhealthy lifestyles contribute up to 80 percent of the causes of chronic illness at a young age.
Apply the SMART strategy to reduce the risk of chronic illness since young
Starting a healthy lifestyle is not easy. However, if you are committed and sure to change your lifestyle healthier, it will feel easy.
"To make it easier for people to start living healthy lifestyles, the Ministry of Health launches the principle of SMART," said Dr. Sandra.
The SMART movement itself stands for.
- Check health conditions regularly, including weight and height to blood sugar levels, cholesterol and blood pressure. Regular health checks can be started at the age of 15 years, for once a year. Health checks are useful for early detection of your risk of disease. If you are already at risk for chronic illness, it's best to check your health more often.
- Remove cigarette smoke and stop smoking.
- Diligent do physical activities for at least 30 minutes a day, such as exercise, walking, cleaning the house. Perform physical activity regularly.
- Diets with balanced nutrition, eating healthy foods, eating enough vegetables, avoiding excessive sweets and carbonated drinks.
- Rest enough, make sure you get enough sleep in a day, at least not less than seven or eight hours.
- Manage well.
The SMART principle can also minimize or even cancel the risk factors for chronic diseases that you already have, such as high blood pressure or high blood sugar. Even exercise can help lower blood pressure, concludes Dr. Sandra.
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