In your extended family, not only is the age different, but there must be different body shapes. Some are tall, some are fat, or some look ordinary. In addition, there are also those who look very active up and down stairs and like sports, and some are just sitting in front of a laptop all day. Well, with these different conditions, of course each nutritional requirement is also different.
What factors distinguish each person's nutritional needs?
According to the Indonesian Ministry of Health, nutritional needs are the minimum amount of nutrients needed by each person. The amount needed is different based on the condition of each body.
The nutritional needs of each individual depend on several factors, namely age, gender, level of physical activity, weight, and height.
Nutritional needs are very specific for one individual. In fact, even twins can have different nutritional needs if both have different levels of activity, as well as different weight and height.
How to calculate your nutritional needs
Macro nutrition requirements
Macro nutrition is a nutrient needed in large amounts by the body. Included in the group of macro nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, and also fats.
If you talk about macro nutritional needs, there is usually another term that is often mentioned, namely energy needs. This energy requirement can be calculated by a formula to estimate it, one of them is the Harris Benedict formula.
However, you don't need to worry about calculating it using the formula. Hello Sehat provides a Calorie Requirement Calculator that you can use practically.
By entering your height, weight, gender, age, and physical activity data, you will find out about your energy needs.
After knowing the number of calories you need, you can divide them into 3 macro nutrients:
- Protein requirements that need 10-15% of your total calorie needs. Then, change it to gram so you can be more imagined as heavy as what you need. 1 gram of protein is equal to 4 calories.
- Fat requirements are needed as much as 10-25% of your total calorie needs. 1 gram of fat equals 9 calories.
- Carbohydrate needs that need 60-75% of your total calorie needs. 1 gram of carbohydrate is equivalent to 4 calories
For example, if your results from the Calorie Requirement Calculator are 2000 calories, then:
- Your protein needs: 15% x 2000 calories = 300 calories. Changed to gram by: calorie protein divided by 4. The result is 75 grams of protein.
- Your fat requirements: 20% x 2000 = 400 calories. Converted to gram by: fat calories divided by 9. The result is 44 grams.
- Your carbohydrate needs: 65% x 2000 = 1300 calories. Converted to gram by: carbohydrate calories divided by 4. The result is 325 grams.
In conclusion, your daily calorie needs are 2000 calories, with 325 carbohydrate requirements, 75 grams of protein, and 44 grams of fat per day.
Micronutrients are nutrients that are needed in small amounts by the body. Examples of micronutrients include calcium, sodium, iron, potassium, iodine, vitamins, magnesium, and phosphorus.
Micronutrient needs cannot be estimated through formulas such as macro nutritional needs, but are sufficient to be seen based on their adequacy. This is because the amount of micronutrients is very small, there are many types, and usually the needs are relatively the same for each age group.
Adequacy of micronutrients can be seen in Indonesia's 2013 Nutrition Adequacy Rate (AKG) issued by the Indonesian Ministry of Health.
Different nutritional requirements for each person, but do not be confused with nutritional adequacy
When discussing nutritional needs, often people are fooled by what is called nutritional adequacy. As if these are two things in common. In fact, this is a different context.
The nutritional adequacy rate (RDA) is the adequacy of average of daily nutrition for almost all healthy people in a country.
That means, the AKG is used as a benchmark for the average nutrient needed by a group of people. It does not describe what the nutritional needs of a particular individual are.
The number of nutritional adequacy will be the same in one age group. However, the exact number of nutritional needs will always vary for everyone.
For example, in the RDA it is recommended that the number of proteins of men aged 19-29 years is 63 grams. That means, the average amount of protein that is of sufficient size for most men aged 19-29 years in Indonesia is 63 grams.
However, if you calculate the protein nutritional requirements based on the method previously stated, the results will certainly be different. Not sure 63 grams, can be more or less.
RDA is usually used more as a benchmark in formulating nutritional label references. Usually you will find this label on food wrap in the nutrition information table or nutrition facts.
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