Appendicitis (appendicitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix. Appendectomy is the most commonly performed emergency surgical procedure and accounts for 1-2% of all surgical operations. Acute appendicitis is quite common and most sufferers are teenagers and young adults. In the century since the discovery of this disease, there has been no progress in explaining the etiology and pathogenesis of appendicitis. According to leading theory, the initial occurrence of acute appendicitis is narrowing of the lumen by factors such as foreign bodies, intestinal parasites, tumors, or enlargement of lymphoid follicles due to viral infection. However, the channel constriction has also been identified in 30-40% of appendicitis that has been removed. Then, are all the cases related to offspring? You can see the full explanation below.
Is appendicitis actually inherited?
First, in 1937, Baker explained a family tree in which 50% of his family members were operated on due to appendicitis. Andersson et al. and also Arnbjornsson shows the high incidence of appendicitis among close family members. Hiraiwa et al. found in their large-scale research in Japan, that about 40% of children with both parents were affected, 20% of whom were affected by acute appendicitis in childhood. The family's tendency to get acute appendicitis may be explained by environmental factors, such as certain bacterial infections, certain eating habits, or genetic differences in resistance to bacterial infections. Adamidis et al. said that low fiber intake plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis and also affects 70% of cases.
Brender et al. found in their controlled case study, that seven patients with a history of appendicitis had siblings with the same history. Finally, they stated that these results showed several trends in the role of the family from appendicitis.
Genetic factors take part in the emergence of acute appendicitis. Basta et al. shows the likelihood of appendicitis being 10 times greater in children who have at least one relative who has been reported to have appendicitis, compared with children without a family free of appendicitis. They also found that the proportion of families with appendicitis varied directly with the level of relationship: 21% in first-degree families, 12% in second-degree families, and 7% in third-level families. The analysis of the complex sorting was supported by multiple gene models with a total heritability of 56%.
Basta et al. has supported the hypothesis that acute appendicitis is inherited by the family, and also the possibility that the HLA system (human leukocyte antigen) and ABO blood group are related. They found that blood type A had a higher risk of having appendicitis than group O. They also found that the Rh CcD-Ee (characteristic) phenotype was significantly more common in appendicitis patients. In this study, we can say that there is a role for inherited multiple (polygenic) genes in acute appendicitis.
Although there is not much progress to explain the etiology and pathogenesis of acute appendicitis, the family's tendency to develop acute appendicitis can be explained by environmental factors such as certain bacterial infections, certain eating habits, or genetic differences in fighting bacterial infections. However, complex sorting analysis is supported by multiple (polygenic) gene models with 56% heritability. This means that almost half of the diversity of risks of acute appendicitis is due to genetic factors. In this study, we can say that there is a role for multiple inherited genes in acute appendicitis. Family history of this disease positively increases the risk of acute appendicitis by almost 3-fold.
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