The skin is the largest organ in the human body. If stretched, the body skin of an adult has an area of about two square meters - can cover a door. The breadth of our skin functions to protect every muscle, tissue, and important organs in the body. The skin also functions to help regulate body temperature as well as a sense of touch. In addition, human skin also acts as a producer of vitamin D which is important for bone health. That's why we must always maintain healthy skin. However, do you already know and understand correctly about the anatomical structure of your own skin? Come on, see the explanation below.
What is human skin anatomy like?
The thickness and color of the skin can differ between people, depending on many factors - including genetics, race, age, to gender. There are also some people who have more hairy skin than others.
Apart from all that, basically the skin consists of 3 main layers:
The epidermis is the first and outer layer of the skin, the only layer of skin that can be seen by the naked eye. The anatomy of the skin of the epidermis is largely formed by layers of keratinocytes, which produce keratin.
Epidermis itself is then divided into 5 layers, namely:
- Basal stratum: the main place for producing keratinocytes
- Stratum spinosum: keratinocytes that form then bind to the intercellular junction called desmosomes
- Stratum granulosum: where skin cells produce fat and other molecules
- Stratum lucidum: serves to produce more keratin
- Stratum corneum: the upper epidermal layer, which continues to produce keratin
Keratinocytes usually take between 30 to 40 days to travel from the basal stratum to the stratum corneum.
There are also 3 layers of non-keratinocyte cells that inhabit the epidermis, namely:
- Melanocytes: responsible for producing melanin (skin pigment pigment). The more melanin is produced, the darker the skin will be. Melanin production is influenced by your genetics.
- Langerhans cells: function as connecting cells and skin defense systems
- Merkel cells: function as one of the skin receptors
The dermis is the second layer of skin after the epidermis. The dermis functions as a protector in the body. The structure is thicker than the dermis, although it only consists of two layers - superficial papillary layer and reticular layer.
The reticular layer is much thicker than the papillary layer and has a collection of collagen fibers.
Some cell structures that can be found in the dermis, namely:
- Fibroblasts: serves to produce collagen and elastin
- Mast cells: these cells contain histamine granules derived from the immune system
- Complementary skin: a gathering place for hair follicles, sebaceous glands (oil glands), and sweat glands. Nail growth also starts here.
The hypodermic layer is the deepest layer of skin, which is also often called the subcutaneous or subcutaneous layer. The subcutaneous layer contains the most fat to protect the body and helps the body to adjust to outside temperatures. Hypodermis also acts as a binder of the skin to the muscles and various tissues below it.
But don't worry, the fat in this layer is not the same as bad visceral fat due to a bad lifestyle. The fat layer in the subcutaneous layer will always be under the skin. The amount can also vary for each individual depending on the composition of fat in the body.
Besides containing fat, there are also many blood vessels in this layer.
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