The kidneys are one of the body's important organs that function to filter blood. Everyone has a pair of kidneys in his body. To find out more details, here are reviews about kidney anatomy.
Anatomy of the human kidney
The kidneys are located along the muscular wall of the back (posterior muscle) of the abdominal cavity. The shape of the kidney resembles a peanut that is about the size of a hand. The kidneys are equipped with a pair of ureters, a bladder and urethra that carry urine out.
Humans have a pair of kidneys whose left part is located slightly higher than the right kidney, because of the presence of the liver that urges the right kidney. The kidneys are also protected by ribs and back muscles. In addition, adipose tissue (fat tissue) surrounds the kidneys and acts as a protective kidneys.
In general, the anatomy of the human kidney is divided into three parts from the outermost to the deepest, namely the renal cortex, renal medulla, and renal pelvis.
1. Cortex (Cortex)
The renal cortex is the outermost part of the kidney. The outer edge of the renal cortex is surrounded by kidney capsules and fat tissue, to protect the inside of the kidney.
2. Medulla (medulla)
The kidney medulla is a smooth and deep kidney tissue. The medulla contains the Henle arch and the kidney pyramid, which are small structures with nephrons and tubules.
This tubule transports fluid to the kidney which then moves away from the nephron to the part that collects and transports urine out of the kidney.
3. Kidney pelvis (renal pelvis)
The kidney pelvis is a funnel-shaped space in the innermost part of the kidney. This serves as a pathway for fluid on the way to the bladder. The first part of the kidney pelvis contains calyces. This is a small cup-shaped chamber that collects fluid before moving into the bladder.
Hilum is a small hole located on the inside of the kidney, where it curves inward to create a different bean-like shape. Kidney pelvis passes, and:
- Kidney arteries, carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the kidneys for the filtration process.
- Kidney veins, bring filtered blood from the kidneys back to the heart.
Ureters are muscle tubes that push urine into the bladder.
Get to know the nephron, the part of the kidney that filters the blood
Nephrons are part of the anatomy of the kidneys responsible for blood filtration. Nephrons take blood, metabolize nutrients, and help circulate filtered waste products.
Nephrons extend across the cortex and renal medulla area. Each kidney has about one million nephrons, each of which has its own internal structure. The following is part of the nephron:
1. Maligiigi body
After blood enters the nephron, blood enters the malpighi body (kidney corpus). Malphigi's body contains two additional structures, namely:
- Glomerulus, a group of capillaries that absorb protein from blood through the malphigi body.
- Bowman Capsule.
2. Renal tubules
The renal tubules are a series of tubes that start after the Bowman capsule and end up in the collecting tubule (collecting duct). Each tubule has several parts:
- The proximal tubule is the tubule closest to the glomerulus, the shape of this tubule is convoluted. Function to absorb water, sodium, and glucose back into the blood.
- The loop of Henle (loop of henle) is part of the kidney tubule that forms a downward arch, and is located between the proximal and distal tubules. Serves to absorb potassium, chloride and sodium into the blood.
- Distal tubules are tubules that are at the end of the renal tubule series which are convoluted. Serves to absorb more sodium into the blood and take potassium and acid.
Waste or liquid filtered from nephrons is passed into the collecting tubules, which direct urine to the renal pelvis. Pelvic kidney with ureter allows urine to flow to the bladder for excretion.
Stages of urine formation
The kidneys are organs that are responsible for filtering blood and making urine. Every day, two kidneys filter around 120-150 liters of blood to produce about 1-2 liters of urine, consisting of waste and extra fluid. Urine flows from the kidney to the bladder through the ureter, which is on each side of the bladder, to be stored.
Here is how the kidneys work when filtering blood and producing urine:
The process of urine formation begins with screening (filtration) of blood, which is carried out by the glomerulus in blood flowing from the aorta through the kidney arteries to the Malpighi's body.
This residual filtering product is called primary urine, which contains water, glucose, salt and urea. These substances will enter and be temporarily stored in Bowman's capsules.
After the primary urine is temporarily stored in the Bowman capsule, then it will go to the collecting channel. On the way to this collecting channel, the process of urine formation through the stages of reabsorption.
Substances that can still be used such as glucose, amino acids, and certain salts will be absorbed again by the proximal tubules and arches of Henle. Reabsorption of the primary urine will produce secondary urine. Secondary urine is characterized by a high content of urea.
The last process of urine formation is augmentation. Secondary urine produced by the proximal tubule and the Henle arch will flow to the distal tubule.
The urine urine will go through the blood capillaries to release substances that are no longer useful to the body. Next, the actual urine is formed.
When the bladder meets capacity, the signal sent to the brain tells someone to go to the toilet immediately. When the bladder is empty, urine flows out of the body through the urethra, which is located at the bottom of the bladder.
In general, the kidneys are useful for maintaining homeostasis (balance of various bodily functions) in the body and help control blood pressure.
The kidneys maintain balance in electrolytes, acid base, and fluids in the blood. The kidneys remove nitrogenous waste from the body (creatinine, urea, ammonia) and maintain important substances that the body needs to function properly.
In addition, the kidneys also produce the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates the production of red blood cells and enzymes.
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