Kidney cysts are round fluid bags that form in the kidney and are usually less than 2.5 cm in diameter. Kidney cysts are different from cysts that develop when a person has polycystic kidney disease (PKD), genetic disease.
Simple kidney cysts
Simple kidney cysts often detected during imaging tests (for example, ultrasound, CT, MRI) are performed for other conditions, because they rarely cause pain or other symptoms. It is unclear what causes this simple kidney cyst, even though the risk increases with age. Simple kidney cysts in children are rare.
Complex kidney cysts
While cysts are generally simple fluid sacs, they can have some space. These cysts are called complex, or septated. Septations is a wall in a cyst. Having lots or thick walled septations shows a low risk of cancer. If the cyst is complex, the doctor may repeat the imaging test a few months later to make sure the cyst does not grow and become cancerous.
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney /multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a condition that occurs when the kidneys are not properly joined when they form in the uterus. The result is that the kidneys do not function and are full of cysts and scar tissue. Fortunately, the remaining kidneys are usually able to take over all kidney function. In infants with MCDK, the remaining kidneys may have abnormalities. Your doctor may do more tests to evaluate this kidney.
Incident: MCDK affects 1 in every 4,000 babies.
Diagnosis : 70% of MCDK cases are diagnosed with ultrasound before the baby is born.
Prevention : There is no way to prevent MCDK from happening early in a baby's development, and there is no known way to prevent it from happening later.
Conclusion : A baby with MCDK and not having other birth defects has a normal life expectancy. For children with only one kidney working, the kidneys may be slightly larger than usual. The child will need follow-up care to ensure the kidneys stay healthy.
Polycystic kidney disease
Kidney cysts can also be caused by genetic mutations. The most common form of this is PKD, where cysts can replace the kidneys over time and cause kidney failure. There are two forms: autosomal dominant (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive (ARPKD).
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
Large kidney cysts associated with ADPKD. They often appear in childhood, although most affected children and adolescents have no symptoms until they grow up.
Incidents : ADPKD affects 1 in 500 people. There is usually a family history with ADPKD. Parents with ADPKD have a 50% chance of reducing the disease in their children.
Symptoms : Often the first sign is high blood pressure, the presence of blood in the urine, or a feeling of heaviness or pain in the back, side of the body, or stomach. Sometimes, the first sign is a urinary tract infection (UTI) and /or kidney stones.
Diagnosis : Children with a family history of ADPKD must carry out regular urine analysis and blood pressure measurements to identify the initial manifestations of the disease. It is not recommended for children and healthy adolescents to take a kidney imaging test, regardless of whether or not parents have ADPKD. One reason is that it can affect a child's condition, even if there are no symptoms. Routine genetic testing of children and adolescents who are potentially affected is also not recommended. Note: this can change with advances in ADPKD treatment.
Conclusion : There is currently no therapy to prevent cysts from forming or enlarging.
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
Enlargement of the kidney with small cysts associated with ARPDK. Sometimes, the shape of the kidneys can be quite large but functions poorly until the baby is born with severe respiratory problems and cannot survive.
Incidents : ARPKD is relatively rare and occurs in 1 in 20,000 people.
Diagnosis : Most cases of ARPKD are diagnosed with ultrasound before the baby is born.
Conclusion : Most children with ARPKD have high blood pressure and progressive kidney failure. They need kidney dialysis and /or receive a kidney transplant at the end of childhood to survive. A number of these children will also develop liver disease, which causes esophageal bleeding and ultimately affects liver failure.
Physical activity & amp; children with kidney cyst disease
Large cysts can rupture with minor trauma and cause blood in the urine and frequent severe bleeding. Your pediatrician will help decide whether physical activity should be limited. It is possible that children with large kidneys and /or large cysts will have more episodes of blood in the urine if they exercise heavily, such as soccer.
Prospects for children with kidney cysts
The number of cysts that children have affects their signs and symptoms. In most children, kidney cysts grow very slowly, and do not cause problems. Therefore, no treatment is needed.
If the cyst becomes very large, this can cause pain in the body or abdomen or interfere with kidney function. However, surgery is rarely needed for cysts. Usually, the cyst is removed or dried if it is infected and does not respond well to antibiotics or causes significant pain. A pediatric nephrologist and pediatric urologist work together to decide whether to remove a kidney cyst.
Note : Surgery can only remove a number of cysts in children with cystic kidney disease. After surgery, small cysts can continue to enlarge. This means surgery is not a final treatment and further treatment is needed for long-term care.