There are at least 10 million people who have Parkinson's in the world. Usually this disease affects people over the age of 65 years, but 15% of the total incidence of Parkinson's can be owned by the age group under 50 years. And, men are more likely to be 1.5 times more likely to develop Parkinson's.
What is Parkinson's and what are the symptoms that often appear?
Parkinson's disease is a progressive disease and damages the nervous system which causes limited movement and impaired locomotion. In patients with early stage Parkinson's, the symptoms that may arise are that it is difficult to move the face, so that it often has no expression. In addition, maybe without realizing it, when the patient is relaxed, the arms are no longer swinging like normal people do.
In the majority of people living with Parkinson's disease, symptoms usually begin with a decrease in motor ability and cannot control movement of the movements and muscles. Here are four main symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease, namely:
These symptoms occur very often in Parkinson's patients. Tremor is characterized by limb movements that occur unconsciously, vibrating rhythmically. This symptom begins with one finger trembling, and for a long time all fingers will tremble. But not all people who have Parkinson's disease experience tremors.
That is a condition where the muscles feel stiff in the legs and neck. For some, this muscle stiffness causes pain such as muscle cramps, but for some others it causes loss of feeling or numbness in the muscles that experience rigidity.
3. Bradykinesia or akinesia
Similar to rigidity and tremor, bradykinesia and akinesia are also associated with limited limb movement. Bradykinesia is one of the classic symptoms of Parkinson's disease, which is a delay in movement in the limbs. If Parkinson's disease is not treated properly, then in a few years it will cause akinesia, or cannot move the limbs at all and the muscles become stiff.
4. Body imbalance
The ability to balance yourself is reduced, therefore Parkinson's sufferers are very susceptible to falls.
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Then, what are the causes of Parkinson's disease?
The main cause of Parkinson's disease is that some nerve cells in the brain are damaged or even die. Various symptoms experienced by Parkinson's patients are caused by damage to nerve cells which then dopamine levels, which should keep brain activity normal. So, when dopamine levels decrease, the brain shows abnormal activity that causes Parkinson's symptoms.
Until now the damage to nerve cells that cause Parkinson's disease is not known with certainty. But here are some risk factors for Parkinson's disease:
- Genetic . The researchers stated that in Parkinson's patients there has been a genetic mutation. Even though. Some innate genes may increase the risk of Parkinson's disease.
- Environmental factors . Frequent exposure to toxins or pollution can increase the risk of Parkinson's
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Can Parkinson's be cured?
Just like diabetes, Parkinson's is incurable but complications can be controlled which may arise later on. Some medical measures may be needed when the stages of Parkinson's disease have entered the final stage. But here are medicines that are often given to people with Parkinson's:
Levodopa is a drug that is considered the most effective for suppressing symptoms and slowing down signs of Parkinson's disease that appears. This drug works like dopamine which is lost in Parkinson's sufferers. Whereas Carbidova is a drug that is combined to relieve symptoms of nausea and vomiting that can arise due to consuming levodopa. Taking carbidova-levodopa for a long time and with high doses can cause the body's movements to become uncontrolled. Therefore, doctors usually adjust the dose by looking at possible side effects
This type of drug is needed for Parkinson's patients who have entered the advanced stage. When levodopa is no longer effective in reducing Parkinson's symptoms, the duopa is the recommended medication to replace it.
Unlike levodopa which replaces the role of dopamine in the body, this dopamine agonist mimics the effects of dopamine on the brain. Although not as effective as levodopa in treating existing symptoms, but dopamine agonist is safer for a long time than levodopa.
This drug works by preventing dopamine levels from falling or even disappearing from the brain. Side effects caused by this drug are nausea or insomnia
This drug is used to reduce the level of tremor that occurs in Parkinson's patients. While the side effects caused by consuming this drug are hallucinations, constipation or constipation, dry mouth, and rarely urinate.
Amantadine is given to Parkinson's patients with very early to moderate stages and causes side effects such as hallucinations and pain in some joints.
What else can be done to treat Parkinson's?
Parkinson's disease cannot be cured, but some of the previously mentioned treatments can suppress the symptoms that appear and prevent Parkinson's getting worse. Not only that, Parkinson's sufferers also have to change their lifestyle including diet and exercise. Because indirectly this affects the health of Parkinson's patients and is able to reduce the symptoms that arise.
1. Undergo a healthy diet
Although there is no food that can cure Parkinson's disease, some foods can alleviate symptoms, such as high-fiber foods. This food can prevent Parkinson's sufferers from having constipation or constipation. Eating healthy foods such as foods that contain high levels of omega 3 fatty acids, is very beneficial for people with Parkinson's.
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2. Regular exercise
Exercise can increase muscle strength, flexibility, and maintain the body's balance ability. Not only that, exercise can also increase stamina, fitness, and reduce the level of depression and anxiety. In Parkinson's patients, the recommended exercise is walking casually, swimming, or doing aerobic exercise to maintain muscle flexibility.
3. Avoid movements that cause falls
Due to decreased ability to imbalance, Parkinson's sufferers are very vulnerable to falls. Therefore, if you are walking do not look down because it risks making you fall. In addition, avoid carrying heavy luggage when walking.